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amenorrhea
absence of menstruation in a person with ovaries and a uterus, who is of reproductive age
barrier method
contraceptive method that prevents pregnancy by blocking the passage of sperm through the reproductive tract, which prevents sperm from reaching the egg for fertilization
cervical cap
small cup made of silicone that fits snugly over the cervix, blocking sperm from entering and reaching the ovum
coitus interruptus
method of contraception, called withdrawal or pulling out, when the penis is withdrawn from the vagina prior to ejaculation
contraceptive abstinence
abstaining from vaginal intercourse, with avoidance of semen entering the vagina to fertilize an ovum, preventing pregnancy
contraceptive implant
contraceptive device that is placed subdermally, releasing etonogestrel over a 3-year period to prevent pregnancy
contraceptive sponge
small, round sponge, with indents on one side and a loop on the other side, that releases a continuous flow of nonoxynol-9 spermicide
diaphragm
dome-shaped silicone cup that is inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix, preventing sperm from reaching the uterus
dysmenorrhea
very painful menstrual cramping that interferes with the person’s daily living
emergency contraception (EC)
form of contraception that is effective in interrupting a pregnancy before it begins if administered within a specific time frame after sexual intercourse
endometrial hyperplasia
condition in which the endometrium of the uterus becomes very thick, causing unusual bleeding
external condom
sheath placed on a penis or sex toy, providing both contraception and STI protection
female sterilization
term used to describe a surgical procedure that permanently terminates fertility and pregnancy in a person with a uterus
ferning
pattern cervical mucus makes when placed on a glass slide under a microscope
fertility awareness methods (FAM)
methods requiring the person who is menstruating to monitor the menstruation cycle and fertile window and to avoid vaginal coitus intimate contact during the fertile window
internal condom
soft polyurethane sheath that is inserted into the vagina for contraception and STI protection
intrauterine contraception (IUC) device (IUD)
small, plastic T-shaped contraceptive device that is placed inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy
long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)
long-lasting and easily reversible birth control, including intrauterine contraception devices and contraceptive implants
male sterilization
term used to describe a surgical procedure that permanently blocks the small tubes in the scrotum that carry sperm so they cannot be ejaculated and cause pregnancy
medically induced abortion
termination of pregnancy induced by medications
menstrual start method
method in which the patient begins taking COC pills on the first day of their next menstrual cycle
mittelschmerz
midcycle abdominal pain related to ovulation
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
infection of the female reproductive organs, most often occurring when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from the vagina to the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries
perfect use effectiveness
rate of effectiveness of a contraceptive method measured in clinical trial
quick start method
method in which the patient begins taking COC pills on the day of the appointment because they have been deemed “reasonably certain” of not being pregnant due to history taking and point-of-care pregnancy test; with this method, a “backup method” (barrier method) is necessary for the next 7 days.
reanastomosis
reconnecting of the vas deferens (or any tissue) after it has been surgically opened
spermicide
cream, foam, gel, suppository, or vaginal film that acts as an adjunct therapy when used with barrier methods, destroying sperm by disrupting the cell membrane
spinnbarkeit
cervical mucus that is more estrogen dominant, presents as clear, stretchable, and much more amenable to sperm mobility, occurring at ovulation
Sunday start method
in which the patient is educated to begin taking COC pills on the Sunday that follows the first day of the next menstrual cycle
surgically induced abortion
procedure in which manual dilation of the cervix occurs, followed by emptying of the uterine cavity using a suction curettage
tubal ligation
surgical procedure for female sterilization in which the fallopian tubes are permanently blocked, clipped, or removed
typical use effectiveness
rate of effectiveness of a contraceptive method when used in real life over a year, impacted by persons not following instructions for use every time
U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (US MEC)
tool developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess if a patient is eligible for a type of contraception based on medical conditions or previous medical conditions
unintended pregnancy
unwanted or mistimed pregnancy
vaginal coitus
penile-vaginal intercourse
vasectomy
procedure in which a small opening is made in the scrotum to sever the vas deferens by ligation or cautery, preventing sperm from being ejaculated
venous thromboembolism
blood clot that forms within a vein
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