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Photo of hand holding contraceptive pills and a condom.
Figure 5.1 Methods of Family Planning Many contraceptive options are available to patients. The nurse has a unique opportunity to explain to patients the pros and cons of each method. (credit: “Female holding contraceptives” by Marco Verch Professional Photographer, CC BY 2.0)

Every day approximately 800 women die from pregnancy-related conditions (World Health Organization [WHO], 2023d). Specific populations are at increased risk for pregnancy complications. Empowering a person to choose if and when to have a child by providing safe and affordable access to contraception is shown to reduce poverty, morbidity, mortality, instances of unintended pregnancies, abortions, maternal deaths, and infant deaths (Sarder et al., 2021)

Healthy People 2030’s objective of improved pregnancy outcomes and prevention of unintended pregnancy is a priority in contraceptive counseling. Nearly half the pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Unplanned pregnancy can lead to outcomes such as perinatal depression, anxiety, preterm birth, low birth weight, and decreased maternal-infant attachment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2023). Contraceptive availability is a foundational goal; however, sociocultural expectations also play an important role in this initiative. Attitudes of women and the society they live in—the feeling that they should produce until a set number of children are born or until they can no longer give birth—is a key sociocultural inhibition to the use of contraception (Bapolisi et al., 2024).

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