Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Photo of hand holding contraceptive pills and a condom.
Figure 5.1 Methods of Family Planning Many contraceptive options are available to patients. The nurse has a unique opportunity to explain to patients the pros and cons of each method. (credit: “Female holding contraceptives” by Marco Verch Professional Photographer, CC BY 2.0)

Every day approximately 800 women die from pregnancy-related conditions (World Health Organization [WHO], 2023d). Specific populations are at increased risk for pregnancy complications. Empowering a person to choose if and when to have a child by providing safe and affordable access to contraception is shown to reduce poverty, morbidity, mortality, instances of unintended pregnancies, abortions, maternal deaths, and infant deaths (Sarder et al., 2021)

Healthy People 2030’s objective of improved pregnancy outcomes and prevention of unintended pregnancy is a priority in contraceptive counseling. Nearly half the pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Unplanned pregnancy can lead to outcomes such as perinatal depression, anxiety, preterm birth, low birth weight, and decreased maternal-infant attachment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2023). Contraceptive availability is a foundational goal; however, sociocultural expectations also play an important role in this initiative. Attitudes of women and the society they live in—the feeling that they should produce until a set number of children are born or until they can no longer give birth—is a key sociocultural inhibition to the use of contraception (Bapolisi et al., 2024).


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 12, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.