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cardiac defects that result in oxygen saturations of 90 percent or greater, with a left-to-right shunt
apnea of prematurity (AOP)
condition in which breathing stops for 15 to 20 seconds or more, shorter if associated with bradycardia or desaturation
asocial stage
general lack of attachment
more integral provision of a secure environment for the infant throughout their progression and exploration
birth injury
(also, birth trauma) any physical injury to a newborn caused by labor and delivery
birth trauma
(also, birth injury) any physical injury to a newborn caused by labor and delivery
infant and caregiver having experiences they enjoy together
brachial plexus injury (BPI)
injury resulting in paralysis involving muscles of the upper extremity due to trauma of C5 through T1
mobile cartilage in the airways; can cause airway collapse during exhalation
bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)
preterm respiratory disease with significant mortality and morbidity
cardiorespiratory compromise
apnea, bradycardia, or oxygen desaturation
cleft lip
and cleft palate a failure of the tissues to come together at the frontonasal and maxillary processes
congenital disorder
any disorder or abnormality present at birth
congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV)
(also, clubfoot) common congenital lower limb deformity
cranial deformities
congenital or genetic disorders that affect the development of the cranial anatomy resulting in abnormal form or function
cardiac defects that result in oxygen saturations less than 90 percent due to a right-to-left cardiac shunt
drug-resistant seizure
occurs when no AED is effective in stopping the recurrence of seizures
slow, greater than 12 to 24 hours, or difficult labor or delivery
Erb-Duchenne paralysis
paralysis due to injury of the nerves C5 and C6 from pulling the head away from the shoulder during a difficult birth
esophageal atresia (EA)
(also, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)) fetal development anomaly where the esophagus connects to the trachea
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
a life-support method involving a modified form of heart-lung bypass
extremely preterm
born at or before 25 weeks of pregnancy
facial paralysis
paralysis of cranial nerve 7, the facial nerve, from birth injury
invasive tube placed directly into the stomach via interventional radiology or surgery
common congenital abdominal wall defect where the abdominal contents are outside the abdomen
route for administering medications and/or liquids, including formula or breast milk, through a small tube placed through the nose or mouth to the stomach or small intestine
genetic disorder
any disorder caused by an abnormality in the genetic material, chromosomes, or the genes within the chromosomes
hospice care
specialized medical care for an infant nearing the end of life
measured auxiliary temperature below 36.5° C
hypoxic ischemia (HI)
death of tissue due to lack of oxygen to that area over a period of time
indiscriminate stage
where the 6-week-old to 6-month-old infant is interested in others but consolable by all
intracerebellar hemorrhage
bleeding in the cerebellar region
intraventricular hemorrhage
bleeding in the spaces (ventricles) and fluid-filled areas of the brain
nasally placed tube that reaches beyond the gastric sphincter to the duodenum or jejunum of the small intestine to provide continuous feeds
Klumpke palsy
paralysis defined by the lower portion of the arm being flaccid with an absent grasp reflex, affecting nerves C8 to T1
late preterm
born between 34 and 36 completed weeks of pregnancy
size larger than expected for gestational age in a neonate
meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)
respiratory distress in a newborn delivered with meconium-stained amniotic fluid with no other underlying reason for respiratory distress
head circumference at least two standard deviations below the average findings for someone of the same age and gender
moderately preterm
born between 32 and 34 weeks of pregnancy
multiple stage
infant 10 or more months old who has many attachments and persons who can console them
sound that is heard where turbulent blood flow occurs through a heart defect
necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)
ischemic necrosis of the intestinal mucosa
neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)
occurs when the newborn has been exposed to drugs, legal or illegal, that are no longer available, resulting in withdrawal
NG tube
feeding tube placed in the infant’s nostril down to their stomach
OG tube
feeding tube placed in the infant’s mouth down to their stomach
common congenital abdominal wall defect where abdominal contents are held within a sac outside the abdomen
persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN)
elevated pulmonary pressures beyond that time period that the pulmonary vascular resistance is expected to decrease
phrenic nerve paralysis
paralysis of the diaphragm
Ponseti method
gold standard treatment for clubfoot serial manipulation of the foot and ankle with casting and percutaneous Achilles tenotomy followed by long-term use of a foot abduction brace
positive pressure ventilation (PPV)
positive pressure breaths given mechanically to improve ventilation
born after 42 weeks of gestation
psychosocial assessment
assessment to determine a family's mental health and social well-being; is performed by a social worker prior to discharge to identify and support any social or financial needs for the family
respiratory distress
a state when the increased efforts of breathing cannot meet ventilation and oxygenation demands
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
once known as hyaline membrane disease, is a common breathing disorder in preterm infants and newborns
external ventilation along with chest compressions
sibling rivalry
jealousy of the sibling
specific stage
usually only one person is able to console the infant
subarachnoid hemorrhage
bleeding within the subarachnoid space; occurs in full-term infants as a result of trauma and is the most common
subdural hemorrhage
bleeding within the subdural space
Trisomy 13
three copies of the chromosome 13
Trisomy 18
(also, Edwards syndrome) three copies of the chromosome 18
Trisomy 21
(also, Down syndrome (DS)) primarily caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, which results in multiple systemic complications that make up the signs and symptoms of the syndrome
Turner syndrome (TS)
monosomy X is a random formation of reproductive cells in the parent giving birth to the person with the syndrome
effective breaths that result in chest rise with air entry to the lungs
very preterm
born at less than 32 weeks of pregnancy

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