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adrenogenital syndrome
(also: congenital adrenal hyperplasia) syndrome in which excessive amounts of androgen and other hormones secreted by the adrenal gland can present as edema of the genitalia
anterior fontanelle
larger of the two fontanelles, located in the anterior of the fetal skull, diamond shaped
apnea
condition occurring when breathing has stopped for 20 seconds or longer
appropriate for gestational age (AGA)
newborn whose weight and/or length measures within the 10th and the 90th percentile compared to all other newborns their age, according to the CDC growth chart
arm recoil
part of the Ballard estimation of gestational age assessment, assessing passive flexor tone of the biceps
Ballard Score
(also: estimation of gestational age by maturity rating) tool developed by Ballard that measures physical and neuromuscular findings to determine the approximate gestational age of the newborn
Barlow maneuver
assessment of the newborn for congenital hip dysplasia done by adducting the hip while applying pressure on the knee to direct the force posteriorly
brachial palsy
partial or complete paralysis of portions of the arm resulting from trauma to the clavicle during the birth process
Brazelton Behavioral Assessment
comprehensive psychologic assessment completed on a newborn to assess their capabilities for social relationships
caput succedaneum
benign condition that crosses the suture lines in which edema is observed on a newborn’s scalp shortly after birth and is related to trauma during the delivery
cephalohematoma
condition in which there is an accumulation of serosanguineous or bloody fluid below the periosteum of the skull that does not cross the suture line, typically from an instrument-assisted birth
cryptorchidism
condition in which the testes do not descend
dermal melanocytosis
bluish-gray spots of the skin occurring on the back across the shoulders, hips, near the buttocks, and legs (formerly called Mongolian spots)
Dimension I: Interactive Process
assesses the newborn’s alertness, orientation, and responsiveness to visual and auditory cues
Dimension II: Motoric Process
assesses the newborn’s motor tone and activity level
Dimension III: Organizational Process
assesses the newborn’s ability to achieve and maintain a state of alertness, not be irritable, and not be disturbed by stimuli
Dimension IV: Physical Response to Stress
assesses physical symptoms in the newborn in response to being handled and dressed
epispadias
condition in which the urethral meatus is located on the dorsal side of the penis
Epstein pearls
small, firm, white cysts containing keratin that are sometimes found on the gums of a newborn’s mouth
erythema toxicum
normal newborn rash abruptly occurring as yellow or white papules over an erythematous base on the newborn’s body except the palms; occurs in 30 percent to 70 percent of newborns
fontanelle
soft spot located on the newborn’s head where the cranial bones meet and leave openings to allow for molding of the head during birth
frenulum
tiny fold of mucous membrane that runs from the floor of the mouth to the midline of the tongue’s underside
hydrocele
condition in which there is a collection of fluid in the scrotal sac
hypospadias
condition in which the urethral meatus is located on the ventral side of the penis
imperforate anus
condition in which the opening to the anus is missing or blocked
lanugo
fine, soft hair that covers the newborn’s back, shoulders, cheeks, forehead, and scalp; more common in newborns that are born early and often disappears within 4 weeks after birth
large for gestational age (LGA)
newborn whose weight and/or length measures above the 90th percentile compared to all other newborns their age, according to the CDC growth chart
meconium ileus
condition in which there is no passage of meconium in the first 24 to 48 hours after birth
milia
exposed sebaceous glands that look like baby acne on the newborn’s face, nose, or chin, or all three
neonatal jaundice
condition that arises from an excess of bilirubin in the blood due to an increase in breakdown of red blood cells and that manifests in a newborn as a yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes
Ortolani maneuver
assessment of the newborn for congenital hip dysplasia done by placing anterior pressure on the greater trochanters, then gently and smoothly abducting the newborn’s legs
phimosis
condition in which the opening of the foreskin is small and cannot be pulled back over the tip of the penis
polydactyly
condition in which there are more than five digits in the newborn’s hands
posterior fontanelle
smaller of the two fontanelles, located at the junction of the parietal bones and the occipital bone on the fetal skull
small for gestational age (SGA)
newborn whose weight and/or length measures below the 10th percentile compared to all other newborns their age, according to the CDC growth chart
square window sign
part of the Ballard estimation of gestational age assessment, assessing passive flexor tone of the biceps muscle
strawberry hemangioma
raised capillary nevi, occurring anywhere on the body, that often increase in size for the first few months of life, slowly decreasing in size over time, and disappearing by 10 years of age
syndactyly
condition in which there is a presence of webbing or fusion of fingers or toes
telangiectatic nevus
(also: stork bite) pale pink or reddish discoloration at the base of the neck, lower axilla, around the nasal bridge, and on the eyelids
tongue-tie
(also: ankyloglossia) abnormally short frenulum or a frenulum that is attached near the bottom of the tongue
vernix caseosa
cheesy, white substance covering and protecting the skin during intrauterine life; coverage at birth directly related to gestational age
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