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cyanosis occurring only on the hands and feet, an expected finding in a newborn, that lasts up to a week
Apgar assessment
standardized assessment to evaluate the response of the newborn’s transition to extrauterine life based on heart rate, respiration, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and color at 1 minute and 5 minutes post birth
cold stress
occurs when excessive heat loss requires the infant to use compensatory mechanisms (increased respirations and nonshivering thermogenesis) to maintain core body temperature
heat loss occurring from direct contact with a cooler surface
heat loss occurring when heat is transferred from the body surface to the surrounding air by a current
encephalopathy with hyperammonemia
high levels of ammonia in the blood that cause brain damage
heat loss that occurs when liquid is converted to vapor
extrauterine life
life outside the uterus
first period of reactivity
initial episode of neonatal behavior beginning at birth, lasting about 30 minutes, and characterized by activity, alertness, responsiveness, and interaction with anyone nearby
buildup of galactose in the blood
attempting stabilization internally despite significant temperature variations in the environment the neonate is presently in
intrauterine life
life inside the uterus
first stool the newborn passes, consisting of amniotic fluid, mucus, lanugo, and bile
muscle tone
tension of healthy muscles that contributes a slight resistance to passive displacement of a limb
neutral thermal environment
the temperature range necessary for heat production to be at a minimum to maintain normal body temperature
nonshivering thermogenesis
increase in metabolic heat production above the basal metabolism that is not associated with muscle activity
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
cardiac defect that occurs when a fetal anatomic shunt, the ductus arteriosus, fails to close after birth
patent foramen ovale (PFO)
cardiac defect that occurs when a fetal anatomic shunt, the foramen ovale, fails to close after birth
period of decreased responsiveness
secondary episode of neonatal behavior, lasting about 30 minutes to 2 hours, characterized by a marked decrease in motor activity, decreased vital signs, and deep sleep
heat loss occurring from transfer of heat to cool solid objects not in direct contact with the newborn
reflex irritability
newborn’s response to stimulation from the nurse
second period of reactivity
third and final episode of neonatal behavior lasting about 2 to 8 hours, characterized by increased activity, alertness, oral secretions, and an interest in feeding and parental-neonatal bonding; this is the final stage in neonatal transition
ten-step warm chain
standardized program developed in 1997 by the World Health Organization to support thermal stability in the newborn
maintenance of thermal balance by the loss of heat to the environment at a rate equal to the heat being produced
transient neonatal thrombocytopenia
condition of decreased platelets that develops in neonates

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