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amniotomy
procedure performed during labor and delivery in which a health-care provider intentionally breaks the amniotic sac or amniotic membrane; known as the artificial rupture of membranes (AROM)
delayed cord clamping
allowing extra time for blood in the cord and placenta to flow to the baby by waiting to clamp the cord, usually for 1 minute after birth
first-degree laceration
tear of the labia and perineum that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue
fourth-degree laceration
tear that extends through the skin, subcuticular tissue, muscles of the perineum, and anal sphincter into the rectal mucosa; includes damage to the pelvic floor and surrounding anal and rectal mucosa
involution
process by which the uterus begins to return to its prepregnant size
lochia
vaginal discharge composed of blood, mucus, and tissue during the postpartum period
obstetric examination
medical assessment conducted by a health-care provider to evaluate and monitor the health and progress of the pregnant person and their developing fetus throughout pregnancy
obstetric triage
rapid assessment and prioritization of care based on the specific obstetric and gynecologic needs
open glottis pushing
spontaneous or natural pushing, a technique used during the second stage of labor
postpartum hemorrhage
postpartum bleeding that exceeds 500 mL for a vaginal delivery and 1,000 mL for a cesarean birth
retained placenta
when the placenta fails to spontaneously separate from the uterus during the third stage of labor within 30 minutes after birth
second-degree laceration
tear that affects the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscle of the perineum as well as the vagina
shoulder dystocia
condition presenting during delivery in which the head of the newborn is delivered but a shoulder is trapped behind the birthing person’s pubic bone
skin-to-skin contact
placing of the newborn directly on the skin of a parent to promote bonding
third-degree laceration
perineal tear that extends to or through the anal sphincter
uterine atony
lack of muscle tone in the uterus following birth
uterotonics
medications that increase the tone and contractility of the uterus
vaginal examination
medical assessment conducted by a health-care provider to evaluate and monitor the health and progress of the pregnant person during labor, to include cervical dilation, effacement, cervical position, station, and presenting part and position of the fetus
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