Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Welcome to Introductory Statistics, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

The foundation of this textbook is Collaborative Statistics, by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean. Additional topics, examples, and innovations in terminology and practical applications have been added, all with a goal of increasing relevance and accessibility for students.

About OpenStax

OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 25 books for college and AP® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed.

About OpenStax's resources


Introductory Statistics is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors.

Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus, in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book.

Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit your book page on for more information.


All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on


You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through, and in low-cost print and iBooks editions.

About Introductory Statistics

Introductory Statistics follows scope and sequence requirements of a one-semester introduction to statistics course and is geared toward students majoring in fields other than math or engineering. The text assumes some knowledge of intermediate algebra and focuses on statistics application over theory. Introductory Statistics includes innovative practical applications that make the text relevant and accessible, as well as collaborative exercises, technology integration problems, and statistics labs.

Coverage and scope

Chapter 1 Sampling and Data
Chapter 2 Descriptive Statistics
Chapter 3 Probability Topics
Chapter 4 Discrete Random Variables
Chapter 5 Continuous Random Variables
Chapter 6 The Normal Distribution
Chapter 7 The Central Limit Theorem
Chapter 8 Confidence Intervals
Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
Chapter 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
Chapter 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
Chapter 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
Chapter 13 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA

Alternate sequencing

Introductory Statistics was conceived and written to fit a particular topical sequence, but it can be used flexibly to accommodate other course structures. One such potential structure, which fits reasonably well with the textbook content, is provided below. Please consider, however, that the chapters were not written to be completely independent, and that the proposed alternate sequence should be carefully considered for student preparation and textual consistency.

Chapter 1 Sampling and Data
Chapter 2 Descriptive Statistics
Chapter 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
Chapter 3 Probability Topics
Chapter 4 Discrete Random Variables
Chapter 5 Continuous Random Variables
Chapter 6 The Normal Distribution
Chapter 7 The Central Limit Theorem
Chapter 8 Confidence Intervals
Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
Chapter 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
Chapter 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
Chapter 13 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA

Pedagogical foundation and features

  • Examples are placed strategically throughout the text to show students the step-by-step process of interpreting and solving statistical problems. To keep the text relevant for students, the examples are drawn from a broad spectrum of practical topics, including examples about college life and learning, health and medicine, retail and business, and sports and entertainment.
  • Try It practice problems immediately follow many examples and give students the opportunity to practice as they read the text. They are usually based on practical and familiar topics, like the Examples themselves.
  • Collaborative Exercises provide an in-class scenario for students to work together to explore presented concepts.
  • Using the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculator shows students step-by-step instructions to input problems into their calculator.
  • The Technology Icon indicates where the use of a TI calculator or computer software is recommended.
  • Practice, Homework, and Bringing It Together problems give the students problems at various degrees of difficulty while also including real-world scenarios to engage students.

Statistics labs

These innovative activities were developed by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean in order to offer students the experience of designing, implementing, and interpreting statistical analyses. They are drawn from actual experiments and data-gathering processes and offer a unique hands-on and collaborative experience. The labs provide a foundation for further learning and classroom interaction that will produce a meaningful application of statistics.

Statistics Labs appear at the end of each chapter and begin with student learning outcomes, general estimates for time on task, and any global implementation notes. Students are then provided with step-by-step guidance, including sample data tables and calculation prompts. The detailed assistance will help the students successfully apply the concepts in the text and lay the groundwork for future collaborative or individual work.

Additional resources

Student and instructor resources

We’ve compiled additional resources for both students and instructors, including Getting Started Guides, an instructor solution manual, and PowerPoint slides. Instructor resources require a verified instructor account, which you can apply for when you log in or create your account on Take advantage of these resources to supplement your OpenStax book.

Community Hubs

OpenStax partners with the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education (ISKME) to offer Community Hubs on OER Commons – a platform for instructors to share community-created resources that support OpenStax books, free of charge. Through our Community Hubs, instructors can upload their own materials or download resources to use in their own courses, including additional ancillaries, teaching material, multimedia, and relevant course content. We encourage instructors to join the hubs for the subjects most relevant to your teaching and research as an opportunity both to enrich your courses and to engage with other faculty.  

To reach the Community Hubs, visit

Partner resources

OpenStax Partners are our allies in the mission to make high-quality learning materials affordable and accessible to students and instructors everywhere. Their tools integrate seamlessly with our OpenStax titles at a low cost. To access the partner resources for your text, visit your book page on

About the authors

Senior contributing authors

Barbara Illowsky, De Anza College
Susan Dean, De Anza College

Contributing Authors

Daniel Birmajer, Nazareth College
Bryan Blount, Kentucky Wesleyan College
Sheri Boyd, Rollins College
Matthew Einsohn, Prescott College
James Helmreich, Marist College
Lynette Kenyon, Collin County Community College
Sheldon Lee, Viterbo University
Jeff Taub, Maine Maritime Academy


Birgit Aquilonius, West Valley College
Charles Ashbacher, Upper Iowa University, Cedar Rapids
Abraham Biggs, Broward Community College
Roberta Bloom, De Anza College
Ernest Bonat, Portland Community College
Sarah Boslaugh, Kennesaw State University
David Bosworth, Hutchinson Community College
George Bratton, University of Central Arkansas
Jing Chang, College of Saint Mary
Laurel Chiappetta, University of Pittsburgh
Lenore Desilets, De Anza College
Ann Flanigan, Kapiolani Community College
David French, Tidewater Community College
Mo Geraghty, De Anza College
Larry Green, Lake Tahoe Community College
Michael Greenwich, College of Southern Nevada
Inna Grushko, De Anza College
Valier Hauber, De Anza College
Janice Hector, De Anza College
Robert Henderson, Stephen F. Austin State University
Mel Jacobsen, Snow College
Mary Jo Kane, De Anza College
Charles Klein, De Anza College
Alexander Kolovos
Sara Lenhart, Christopher Newport University
Wendy Lightheart, Lane Community College
Vladimir Logvenenko, De Anza College
Jim Lucas, De Anza College
Lisa Markus, De Anza College
Miriam Masullo, SUNY Purchase
Diane Mathios, De Anza College
Robert McDevitt, Germanna Community College
Mark Mills, Central College
Cindy Moss, Skyline College
Nydia Nelson, St. Petersburg College
Benjamin Ngwudike, Jackson State University
Jonathan Oaks, Macomb Community College
Carol Olmstead, De Anza College
Adam Pennell, Greensboro College
Kathy Plum, De Anza College
Lisa Rosenberg, Elon University
Sudipta Roy, Kankakee Community College
Javier Rueda, De Anza College
Yvonne Sandoval, Pima Community College
Rupinder Sekhon, De Anza College
Travis Short, St. Petersburg College
Frank Snow, De Anza College
Abdulhamid Sukar, Cameron University
Mary Teegarden, San Diego Mesa College
John Thomas, College of Lake County
Philip J. Verrecchia, York College of Pennsylvania
Dennis Walsh, Middle Tennessee State University
Cheryl Wartman, University of Prince Edward Island
Carol Weideman, St. Petersburg College
Andrew Wiesner, Pennsylvania State University

Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 23, 2022 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.