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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
    7. 1.6 Sampling Experiment
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
    3. 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
    5. 2.4 Box Plots
    6. 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables
    6. 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
    7. 3.6 Probability Topics
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Bringing It Together: Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
    3. 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
    4. 4.3 Binomial Distribution
    5. 4.4 Geometric Distribution
    6. 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution
    7. 4.6 Poisson Distribution
    8. 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
    9. 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution
    5. 5.4 Continuous Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Normal Distribution (Lap Times)
    5. 6.4 Normal Distribution (Pinkie Length)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
    3. 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums
    4. 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    5. 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
    6. 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Single Population Mean using the Normal Distribution
    3. 8.2 A Single Population Mean using the Student t Distribution
    4. 8.3 A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
    6. 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
    7. 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, Decision and Conclusion
    6. 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    7. 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
    3. 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    4. 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    5. 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples
    6. 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    4. 11.3 Test of Independence
    5. 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
    6. 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    7. 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
    8. 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
    9. 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  13. 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Linear Equations
    3. 12.2 Scatter Plots
    4. 12.3 The Regression Equation
    5. 12.4 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    6. 12.5 Prediction
    7. 12.6 Outliers
    8. 12.7 Regression (Distance from School)
    9. 12.8 Regression (Textbook Cost)
    10. 12.9 Regression (Fuel Efficiency)
    11. Key Terms
    12. Chapter Review
    13. Formula Review
    14. Practice
    15. Homework
    16. Bringing It Together: Homework
    17. References
    18. Solutions
  14. 13 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
    3. 13.2 The F Distribution and the F-Ratio
    4. 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
    5. 13.4 Test of Two Variances
    6. 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  15. A | Review Exercises (Ch 3-13)
  16. B | Practice Tests (1-4) and Final Exams
  17. C | Data Sets
  18. D | Group and Partner Projects
  19. E | Solution Sheets
  20. F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  21. G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
  22. H | Tables
  23. Index

6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution

1.

A bottle of water contains 12.05 fluid ounces with a standard deviation of 0.01 ounces. Define the random variable X in words. X = ____________.

2.

A normal distribution has a mean of 61 and a standard deviation of 15. What is the median?

3.

X ~ N(1, 2)

σ = _______

4.

A company manufactures rubber balls. The mean diameter of a ball is 12 cm with a standard deviation of 0.2 cm. Define the random variable X in words. X = ______________.

5.

X ~ N(–4, 1)

What is the median?

6.

X ~ N(3, 5)

σ = _______

7.

X ~ N(–2, 1)

μ = _______

8.

What does a z-score measure?

9.

What does standardizing a normal distribution do to the mean?

10.

Is X ~ N(0, 1) a standardized normal distribution? Why or why not?

11.

What is the z-score of x = 12, if it is two standard deviations to the right of the mean?

12.

What is the z-score of x = 9, if it is 1.5 standard deviations to the left of the mean?

13.

What is the z-score of x = –2, if it is 2.78 standard deviations to the right of the mean?

14.

What is the z-score of x = 7, if it is 0.133 standard deviations to the left of the mean?

15.

Suppose X ~ N(2, 6). What value of x has a z-score of three?

16.

Suppose X ~ N(8, 1). What value of x has a z-score of –2.25?

17.

Suppose X ~ N(9, 5). What value of x has a z-score of –0.5?

18.

Suppose X ~ N(2, 3). What value of x has a z-score of –0.67?

19.

Suppose X ~ N(4, 2). What value of x is 1.5 standard deviations to the left of the mean?

20.

Suppose X ~ N(4, 2). What value of x is two standard deviations to the right of the mean?

21.

Suppose X ~ N(8, 9). What value of x is 0.67 standard deviations to the left of the mean?

22.

Suppose X ~ N(–1, 2). What is the z-score of x = 2?

23.

Suppose X ~ N(12, 6). What is the z-score of x = 2?

24.

Suppose X ~ N(9, 3). What is the z-score of x = 9?

25.

Suppose a normal distribution has a mean of six and a standard deviation of 1.5. What is the z-score of x = 5.5?

26.

In a normal distribution, x = 5 and z = –1.25. This tells you that x = 5 is ____ standard deviations to the ____ (right or left) of the mean.

27.

In a normal distribution, x = 3 and z = 0.67. This tells you that x = 3 is ____ standard deviations to the ____ (right or left) of the mean.

28.

In a normal distribution, x = –2 and z = 6. This tells you that x = –2 is ____ standard deviations to the ____ (right or left) of the mean.

29.

In a normal distribution, x = –5 and z = –3.14. This tells you that x = –5 is ____ standard deviations to the ____ (right or left) of the mean.

30.

In a normal distribution, x = 6 and z = –1.7. This tells you that x = 6 is ____ standard deviations to the ____ (right or left) of the mean.

31.

About what percent of x values from a normal distribution lie within one standard deviation (left and right) of the mean of that distribution?

32.

About what percent of the x values from a normal distribution lie within two standard deviations (left and right) of the mean of that distribution?

33.

About what percent of x values lie between the second and third standard deviations (both sides)?

34.

Suppose X ~ N(15, 3). Between what x values does 68.27% of the data lie? The range of x values is centered at the mean of the distribution (i.e., 15).

35.

Suppose X ~ N(–3, 1). Between what x values does 95.45% of the data lie? The range of x values is centered at the mean of the distribution(i.e., –3).

36.

Suppose X ~ N(–3, 1). Between what x values does 34.14% of the data lie?

37.

About what percent of x values lie between the mean and three standard deviations?

38.

About what percent of x values lie between the mean and one standard deviation?

39.

About what percent of x values lie between the first and second standard deviations from the mean (both sides)?

40.

About what percent of x values lie betwween the first and third standard deviations(both sides)?

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises: The life of Sunshine CD players is normally distributed with mean of 4.1 years and a standard deviation of 1.3 years. A CD player is guaranteed for three years. We are interested in the length of time a CD player lasts.

41.

Define the random variable X in words. X = _______________.

42.

X ~ _____(_____,_____)

6.2 Using the Normal Distribution

43.

How would you represent the area to the left of one in a probability statement?

Figure 6.12
44.

What is the area to the right of one?

Figure 6.13
45.

Is P(x < 1) equal to P(x ≤ 1)? Why?

46.

How would you represent the area to the left of three in a probability statement?

Figure 6.14
47.

What is the area to the right of three?

Figure 6.15
48.

If the area to the left of x in a normal distribution is 0.123, what is the area to the right of x?

49.

If the area to the right of x in a normal distribution is 0.543, what is the area to the left of x?

Use the following information to answer the next four exercises:

X ~ N(54, 8)

50.

Find the probability that x > 56.

51.

Find the probability that x < 30.

52.

Find the 80th percentile.

53.

Find the 60th percentile.

54.

X ~ N(6, 2)

Find the probability that x is between three and nine.

55.

X ~ N(–3, 4)

Find the probability that x is between one and four.

56.

X ~ N(4, 5)

Find the maximum of x in the bottom quartile.

57.

Use the following information to answer the next three exercise: The life of Sunshine CD players is normally distributed with a mean of 4.1 years and a standard deviation of 1.3 years. A CD player is guaranteed for three years. We are interested in the length of time a CD player lasts. Find the probability that a CD player will break down during the guarantee period.

  1. Sketch the situation. Label and scale the axes. Shade the region corresponding to the probability.
    Empty normal distribution curve.
    Figure 6.16
  2. P(0 < x < ____________) = ___________ (Use zero for the minimum value of x.)
58.

Find the probability that a CD player will last between 2.8 and six years.

  1. Sketch the situation. Label and scale the axes. Shade the region corresponding to the probability.
    Empty normal distribution curve.
    Figure 6.17
  2. P(__________ < x < __________) = __________
59.

Find the 70th percentile of the distribution for the time a CD player lasts.

  1. Sketch the situation. Label and scale the axes. Shade the region corresponding to the lower 70%.
    Empty normal distribution curve.
    Figure 6.18
  2. P(x < k) = __________ Therefore, k = _________
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