6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
A z-score is a standardized value. Its distribution is the standard normal, Z ~ N(0, 1). The mean of the z-scores is zero and the standard deviation is one. If z is the z-score for a value x from the normal distribution N(µ, σ) then z tells you how many standard deviations x is above (greater than) or below (less than) µ.
6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
The normal distribution, which is continuous, is the most important of all the probability distributions. Its graph is bell-shaped. This bell-shaped curve is used in almost all disciplines. Since it is a continuous distribution, the total area under the curve is one. The parameters of the normal are the mean µ and the standard deviation σ. A special normal distribution, called the standard normal distribution is the distribution of z-scores. Its mean is zero, and its standard deviation is one.