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Introductory Business Statistics

7.4 Finite Population Correction Factor

Introductory Business Statistics7.4 Finite Population Correction Factor
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Homework
    9. References
    10. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Display Data
    3. 2.2 Measures of the Location of the Data
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Center of the Data
    5. 2.4 Sigma Notation and Calculating the Arithmetic Mean
    6. 2.5 Geometric Mean
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. Key Terms
    10. Chapter Review
    11. Formula Review
    12. Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables and Probability Trees
    6. 3.5 Venn Diagrams
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Bringing It Together: Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Hypergeometric Distribution
    3. 4.2 Binomial Distribution
    4. 4.3 Geometric Distribution
    5. 4.4 Poisson Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Properties of Continuous Probability Density Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution
    5. Key Terms
    6. Chapter Review
    7. Formula Review
    8. Practice
    9. Homework
    10. References
    11. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Estimating the Binomial with the Normal Distribution
    5. Key Terms
    6. Chapter Review
    7. Formula Review
    8. Practice
    9. Homework
    10. References
    11. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means
    3. 7.2 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    4. 7.3 The Central Limit Theorem for Proportions
    5. 7.4 Finite Population Correction Factor
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Confidence Interval for a Population Standard Deviation, Known or Large Sample Size
    3. 8.2 A Confidence Interval for a Population Standard Deviation Unknown, Small Sample Case
    4. 8.3 A Confidence Interval for A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Calculating the Sample Size n: Continuous and Binary Random Variables
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Comparing Two Independent Population Means
    3. 10.2 Cohen's Standards for Small, Medium, and Large Effect Sizes
    4. 10.3 Test for Differences in Means: Assuming Equal Population Variances
    5. 10.4 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    6. 10.5 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    7. 10.6 Matched or Paired Samples
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Test of a Single Variance
    4. 11.3 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    5. 11.4 Test of Independence
    6. 11.5 Test for Homogeneity
    7. 11.6 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. Bringing It Together: Homework
    14. References
    15. Solutions
  13. 12 F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Test of Two Variances
    3. 12.2 One-Way ANOVA
    4. 12.3 The F Distribution and the F-Ratio
    5. 12.4 Facts About the F Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  14. 13 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 The Correlation Coefficient r
    3. 13.2 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient
    4. 13.3 Linear Equations
    5. 13.4 The Regression Equation
    6. 13.5 Interpretation of Regression Coefficients: Elasticity and Logarithmic Transformation
    7. 13.6 Predicting with a Regression Equation
    8. 13.7 How to Use Microsoft Excel® for Regression Analysis
    9. Key Terms
    10. Chapter Review
    11. Practice
    12. Solutions
  15. A | Statistical Tables
  16. B | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  17. Index

We saw that the sample size has an important effect on the variance and thus the standard deviation of the sampling distribution. Also of interest is the proportion of the total population that has been sampled. We have assumed that the population is extremely large and that we have sampled a small part of the population. As the population becomes smaller and we sample a larger number of observations the sample observations are not independent of each other. To correct for the impact of this, the Finite Correction Factor can be used to adjust the variance of the sampling distribution. It is appropriate when more than 5% of the population is being sampled and the population has a known population size. There are cases when the population is known, and therefore the correction factor must be applied. The issue arises for both the sampling distribution of the means and the sampling distribution of proportions. The Finite Population Correction Factor for the variance of the means shown in the standardizing formula is:

Z= x¯ µ σ n · Nn N1 Z= x¯ µ σ n · Nn N1

and for the variance of proportions is:

σp' = p(1p) n × Nn N1 σp'= p(1p) n × Nn N1

The following examples show how to apply the factor. Sampling variances get adjusted using the above formula.

Example 7.1

It is learned that the population of White German Shepherds in the USA is 4,000 dogs, and the mean weight for German Shepherds is 75.45 pounds. It is also learned that the population standard deviation is 10.37 pounds.

If the sample size is 100 dogs, then find the probability that a sample will have a mean that differs from the true probability mean by less than 2 pounds.

Solution 7.1

N=4000, n=100, σ=10.37, µ=75.45, (x¯µ)=±2N=4000,n=100,σ=10.37,µ=75.45,(x¯µ)=±2

Z= x¯µ σn · Nn N1 = ±2 10.37100 · 4000100 40001 = ±1.95 Z= x¯µ σn · Nn N1 = ±2 10.37100 · 4000100 40001 =±1.95
f(Z)= 0.4744 · 2 = 0.9488 f(Z)=0.4744·2=0.9488

Note that "differs by less" references the area on both sides of the mean within 2 pounds right or left.

Example 7.2

When a customer places an order with Rudy's On-Line Office Supplies, a computerized accounting information system (AIS) automatically checks to see if the customer has exceeded his or her credit limit. Past records indicate that the probability of customers exceeding their credit limit is .06.

Suppose that on a given day, 3,000 orders are placed in total. If we randomly select 360 orders, what is the probability that between 10 and 20 customers will exceed their credit limit?

Solution 7.2

N=3000, n=360, p=0.06N=3000,n=360,p=0.06

σp'= p(1p) n × Nn N1 = 0.06(10.06) 360 × 3000360 30001 = 0.0117 σp'= p(1p) n × Nn N1 = 0.06(10.06) 360 × 3000360 30001 =0.0117
p1=10360 = 0.0278 , p2 = 20360 = 0.0556 p1=10360=0.0278,p2=20360=0.0556
Z= p'p p(1p) n · Nn N1 = 0.02780.06 0.011744 = −2.74 Z= p'p p(1p) n · Nn N1 = 0.02780.06 0.011744 =−2.74
Z= p'p p(1p) n · Nn N1 = 0.05560.06 0.011744 = −0.38 Z= p'p p(1p) n · Nn N1 =0.05560.06 0.011744 =−0.38
p ( 0.02780.06 0.011744 < z < 0.05560.06 0.011744 ) = p ( −2.74 < z < −0.38 ) = 0.4969 0.1480=0.3489 p(0.02780.06 0.011744 <z< 0.05560.06 0.011744 )=p(−2.74<z<−0.38)=0.49690.1480=0.3489
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