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Huot, Anne E. 2014. "A Commitment to Making College Accessible to First-Generation College Students." Huffington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2021 from -s.

9.1 What Is Social Stratification?

Köhler, Nicholas. 2010. “An Uncommon Princess.” Maclean’s, November 22. Retrieved March 25, 2021 from

McKee, Victoria. 1996. “Blue Blood and the Color of Money.” New York Times, June 9.

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Wong, Grace. 2011. "Kate Middleton: A Family Business That Built a Princess." CNN Money. Retrieved December 22, 2014 (

9.2 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States

Civilian labor force participation rate, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, accessed March 15, 2021.

Distribution of Household Wealth in the U.S. since 1989. (n.d.) The Federal Reserve. Retrieved March 21, 2021 from;series:Net%20worth;demographic:networth;population:7;units:shares;range:2005.4,2020.4.

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Beeghley, Leonard. 2008. The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bennett, J.; Fry, R.; and Kochhar, R. (July 23, 2000). Are you in the American middle class? Find out with our income calculator. Pew Research Center.

Bleiweis, R; Boesch, D.; & Gaines, A. C. (August 3, 2020). The Basic Facts About Women in Poverty. Center for American Progress. Center for American Progress.

Cooper, Gould, & Zipperer, 2019. Low-wage workers are suffering from a decline in the real value of the federal minimum wage. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved November 22, 2020.

DeVine, Christine. 2005. Class in Turn-of-the-Century Novels of Gissing, James, Hardy and Wells. London: Ashgate Publishing Co.

Gilbert, Dennis. 2010. The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality. Newbury Park, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Glasmeier, Amy K. Living Wage Calculator. 2020. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Horowitz, J. M.; Igielnik, R.; and Kochhar, R. (2020, January 9). Trends in income and wealth inequality. Pew Research Center.

Kochhar, R. and Fry, R. (December 10, 2015). 5 takeaways about the American middle class. Pew Research Center.

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9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality “Countries by Gross National Income (GNI).” Retrieved January 9, 2012 ( “GNI PPP Per Capita (US$).” PRB 2011 World Population Data Sheet. 2011 Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

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9.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification

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