8.1 Technology Today
Jerome is able to use the Internet to select reliable sources for his research paper, but Charlie just copies large pieces of web pages and pastes them into his paper. Jerome has _____________ while Charlie does not.
- a functional perspective
- the knowledge gap
- a digital divide
The ________ can be directly attributed to the digital divide, because differential ability to access the internet leads directly to a differential ability to use the knowledge found on the Internet.
- digital divide
- knowledge gap
- feminist perspective
The fact that your cell phone is using outdated technology within a year or two of purchase is an example of ____________.
- the conflict perspective
- conspicuous consumption
- planned obsolescence
The history of technology began _________.
- in the early stages of human societies
- with the invention of the computer
- during the Renaissance
- during the nineteenth century
Can you think of people in your own life who support or defy the premise that access to technology leads to greater opportunities? How have you noticed technology use and opportunity to be linked, or does your experience contradict this idea?
Should the U.S. government be responsible for providing all citizens with access to the Internet? Or is gaining Internet access an individual responsibility?
How have digital media changed social interactions? Do you believe it has deepened or weakened human connections? Defend your answer.
Conduct sociological research. Google yourself. How much information about you is available to the public? How many and what types of companies offer private information about you for a fee? Compile the data and statistics you find. Write a paragraph or two about the social issues and behaviors you notice.
To learn more about the digital divide and why it matters, check out this website with research on the digital divide.
To find out more about Internet privacy and security, check out this website on privacy rights.
Abbott, Tyler. 2020. “America's Love Affair With Their Phones.” Reviews.org. (https://www.reviews.org/mobile/cell-phone-addiction/#Smart_Phone_Addiction_Stats)
Allchin, Josie. 2012. “New guidance for brands using child ambassadors.” Marketing Week. (https://www.marketingweek.com/new-guidance-for-brands-using-child-ambassadors/)
American Press Institute. 2015. “Race and ethnicity, device usage, and connectivity.” (https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/publications/reports/survey-research/race-ethnicity-device-usage-connectivity/)
Auxier, Brooke and Rainie, Lee. 2019. “Americans and Privacy.” Pew Research Center. (https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2019/11/15/americans-and-privacy-concerned-confused-and-feeling-lack-of-control-over-their-personal-information/)
Guillén, M.F., and S.L. Suárez. 2005. “Explaining the Global Digital Divide: Economic, Political and Sociological Drivers of Cross-National Internet Use.” Social Forces 84:681–708.
Hall, J. A., & Baym, N. K. (2012). “Calling and texting (too much): Mobile maintenance expectations, (over) dependence, entrapment, and friendship satisfaction.” New Media and Society, 14, 316–331.
Kooser, Amanda. 2015. “Sleep with your smartphone in hand? You're not alone.” CNET. (https://www.cnet.com/news/americans-like-to-snooze-with-their-smartphones-says-survey/)
Levy, Sara. 2019. “No, I Won't Post A Picture of My Kid on Social Media.” Glamour. (https://www.glamour.com/story/mom-wont-post-childs-photo-on-social-media)
Luo, Shanhong. 2014. “Effects of Texting on Satisfaction in Romantic Relationships: The Role of Attachment.” Computers in Human Behavior. April 2014. (10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.014)
Lewis, Dave. 2014. “ICloud Data Breach: Hacking and Celebrity Photos.” Forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved October 6, 2014 (https://www.forbes.com/sites/davelewis/2014/09/02/icloud-data-breach-hacking-and-nude-celebrity-photos/?sh=735a2af22de7).
Liff, Sondra, and Adrian Shepherd. 2004. “An Evolving Gender Digital Divide.” Oxford Internet Institute, Internet Issue Brief No. 2. Retrieved January 11, 2012 (https://educ.ubc.ca/faculty/bryson/565/genderdigdiv.pdf).
Martin, Michael J. R. 2019. “Rural and Lower Income Counties Lag Nation in Internet Subscription.” (https://www.census.gov/library/stories/2018/12/rural-and-lower-income-counties-lag-nation-internet-subscription.html)
McChesney, Robert. 1999. Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Moreno, Johan. 2020. “YouTube Disables Personalized Ads, Commnts on Children's Videos.” Forbes. (https://www.forbes.com/sites/johanmoreno/2020/01/06/youtube-disables-personalized-ads-comments-on-childrens-videos/?sh=202ef7695bf0)
Mossberger, Karen, Caroline Tolbert, and Michele Gilbert. 2006. “Race, Place, and Information Technology.” Urban Affairs Review 41:583–620.
Perrin, Andrew and Turner, Erica. 2019. “Smartphones help blacks, Hispanics bridge some – but not all – digital gaps with whites.” Pew Research Cener. (https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/08/20/smartphones-help-blacks-hispanics-bridge-some-but-not-all-digital-gaps-with-whites/)
“Planned Obsolescence.” 2009. The Economist, March 23. Retrieved January 12, 2012 (http://www.economist.com/node/13354332).
Population Reference Bureau. 2020. “Children, Coronavirus, and the Digital Divide: Native American, Black, and Hispanic Students at Greater Educational Risk During Pandemic. (https://www.prb.org/coronavirus-digital-divide-education/)
Rainie, Lee, Sara Kiesler, Ruogo Kang, and Mary Madden. 2013. "Anonymity, Privacy, and Security Online." Pew Research Centers Internet American Life Project RSS. Pew Research Center. Retrieved October 5, 2014 (http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/09/05/anonymity-privacy-and-security-online/).
Rappaport, Richard. 2009. “A Short History of the Digital Divide.” Edutopia, October 27. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (http://www.edutopia.org/digital-generation-divide-connectivity).
Sciadas, George. 2003. “Monitoring the Digital Divide … and Beyond.” World Bank Group. Retrieved January 22, 2012 (http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.20.html).
Smith, Aaron. 2012. "The Best (and Worst) of Mobile Connectivity." Pew Research Internet Project. Retrieved December 19, 2014 (http://www.pewinternet.org/2012/11/30/the-best-and-worst-of-mobile-connectivity/).
Time.com. 2014. "Rankings." Fortune. Time.com. Retrieved October 1, 2014 (http://fortune.com/rankings/).
Washington, Jesse. 2011. “For Minorities, New ‘Digital Divide’ Seen.” Pew Internet and American Life Project, January 10. Retrieved January 12, 2012 (http://www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2011/For-minorities-new-digital-divide-seen.aspx).
8.2 Media and Technology in Society
When it comes to technology, media, and society, which of the following is true?
- Media can influence technology, but not society.
- Technology created media, but society has nothing to do with these.
- Technology, media, and society are bound and cannot be separated.
- Society influences media but is not connected to technology.
If the U.S. Patent Office were to issue a patent for a new type of tomato that tastes like a jellybean, it would be issuing a _________ patent?
- utility patent
- plant patent
- design patent
- The U.S. Patent Office does not issue a patent for plants.
Which of the following is the primary component of the evolutionary model of technological change?
- Technology should not be subject to patenting.
- Technology and the media evolve together.
- Technology can be traced back to the early stages of human society.
- A breakthrough in one form of technology leads to a number of variations, and technological developments.
Which of the following is not a form of new media?
- The cable television program Yellowstone
- A cooking blog written by Rachael Ray
Research regarding video game violence suggests that _________.
- boys who play violent video games become more aggressive, but girls do not
- girls who play violent video games become more aggressive, but boys do not
- violent video games have no connection to aggressive behavior
- violent video games lead to an increase in aggressive thought and behavior
Comic books, Wikipedia, MTV, and a commercial for Coca-Cola are all examples of:
- symbolic interaction perspective
- the digital divide
8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology
When Japanese scientists develop a new vaccine for swine flu and offer that technology to U.S. pharmaceutical companies, __________ has taken place.
- media globalization
- technological diffusion
- planned obsolescence
In the mid-90s, the U.S. government grew concerned that Microsoft was a _______________, exercising disproportionate control over the available choices and prices of computers.
- technological globalization
The movie Babel featured an international cast and was filmed on location in various nations. When it screened in theaters worldwide, it introduced a number of ideas and philosophies about cross-cultural connections. This might be an example of:
- symbolic interaction
- media globalization
Which of the following is not a risk of media globalization?
- The creation of cultural and ideological biases
- The creation of local monopolies
- The risk of cultural imperialism
- The loss of local culture
The government of __________ blocks citizens’ access to popular new media sites like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter.
8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
A parent secretly monitoring the babysitter through the use of GPS, site blocker, and nanny cam is a good example of:
- the social construction of reality
- a neo-Luddite
- panoptic surveillance
The use of Facebook to create an online persona by only posting images that match your ideal self exemplifies the_____________ that can occur in forms of new media.
- social construction of reality
- market segmentation
_________ tend to be more pro-technology, while _______ view technology as a symbol of the coldness of modern life.
- Luddites; technophiles
- technophiles; Luddites
- cyberfeminists; technophiles
- liberal feminists; conflict theorists
When it comes to media and technology, a functionalist would focus on:
- the symbols created and reproduced by the media
- the association of technology and technological skill with men
- the way that various forms of media socialize users
- the digital divide between the technological haves and have-nots
When all media sources report a simplified version of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing, with no effort to convey the hard science and complicated statistical data behind the story, ___________ is probably occurring.
- the digital divide
- market segmentation