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conflict theory
a theory that examines social and economic factors as the causes of criminal deviance
control theory
a theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society
corporate crime
crime committed by white-collar workers in a business environment
corrections system
the system tasked with supervising individuals who have been arrested for, convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses
a system that has the authority to make decisions based on law
a behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions
criminal justice system
an organization that exists to enforce a legal code
a violation of contextual, cultural, or social norms
differential association theory
a theory that states individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance
formal sanctions
sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced
hate crimes
attacks based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics
informal sanctions
sanctions that occur in face-to-face interactions
labeling theory
the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society
legal codes
codes that maintain formal social control through laws
master status
a label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual
negative sanctions
punishments for violating norms
nonviolent crimes
crimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of force
a civil force in charge of regulating laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level
positive sanctions
rewards given for conforming to norms
power elite
a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the power and resources
primary deviance
a violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others
the means of enforcing rules
secondary deviance
deviance that occurs when a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society
self-report study
a collection of data acquired using voluntary response methods, such as questionnaires or telephone interviews
social control
the regulation and enforcement of norms
social disorganization theory
a theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control
social order
an arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives
strain theory
a theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals
street crime
crime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public spaces
victimless crime
activities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in them
violent crimes
crimes based on the use of force or the threat of force
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