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Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change

AFL-CIO. 2014. "Executive Paywatch." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Camgridge, UK: Polity.

Davies, James C. 1962. "Toward a Theory of Revolution." American Sociological Review 27, no. 1. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Gell, Aaron. 2011. "The Wall Street Protesters: What the Hell Do They Want?" New York Observer. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Le Tellier, Alexandria. 2012. "What Occupy Wall Street Wants." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

NAACP. 2011. “100 Years of History.” Retrieved December 21, 2011 (

21.1 Collective Behavior

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. “Collective Behavior.” Pp. 67–121 in Principles of Sociology, edited by A.M. Lee. New York: Barnes and Noble.

LeBon, Gustave. 1960 [1895]. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. New York: Viking Press.

Lofland, John. 1993. “Collective Behavior: The Elementary Forms.” Pp. 70–75 in Collective Behavior and Social Movements, edited by Russel Curtis and Benigno Aguirre. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

McPhail, Clark. 1991. The Myth of the Madding Crowd. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Smelser, Neil J. 1963. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press.

Turner, Ralph, and Lewis M. Killian. 1993. Collective Behavior. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice Hall.

21.2 Social Movements

A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014. "Civil Rights Movement." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Aberle, David. 1966. The Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine.

AP/The Huffington Post. 2014. "Obama: DOMA Unconstitutional, DOJ Should Stop Defending in Court." The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2014. (

Associated Press. 2021. "Arkansas governor signs bill allowing denial of medical services based on 'conscience'" The Associated Press. March 26, 2021. (

Area Chicago. 2011. “About Area Chicago.” Retrieved December 28, 2011 (

Benford, Robert, and David Snow. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:611–639.

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. “Collective Behavior.” Pp. 67–121 in Principles of Sociology, edited by A.M. Lee. New York: Barnes and Noble.

Buechler, Steven. 2000. Social Movement in Advanced Capitalism: The Political Economy and Social Construction of Social Activism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Brown, Eileen. 2011. "Strong and Weak Ties: Why Your Weak Ties Matter." Social Media Today. June 30 2011. (

CNN U.S. 2014. "Same-Sex Marriage in the United States." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

CBS Interactive Inc. 2014. "Anonymous' Most Memorable Hacks." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Department of Justice, Office of Public Affairs. 2011. "Letter from the Attorney General to Congress on Litigation Involving the Defense of Marriage Act." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

De Alba, Simone. 2021. "Representative who filed Texit bill clears up what he means." News 4 San Antonio. February 2 2021. (

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2010. “Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted.” The New Yorker, October 4. Retrieved December 23, 2011 (

Goffman, Erving. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Human Rights Campaign. 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2011 (

Knowledge at Wharton. 2020. "How Social Media Is Shaping Political Campaigns." Knowledge@Wharton. August 17 2020. (

McAdam, Doug, and Ronnelle Paulsen. 1993. “Specifying the Relationship between Social Ties and Activism.” American Journal of Sociology 99:640–667.

McCarthy, John D., and Mayer N. Zald. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82:1212–1241.

National Organization for Marriage. 2014. “About NOM.” Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Nonprofit Source. 2020. "Social Media Giving Statistics for Nonprofits." Retrieved April 1, 2021. (

Sauter, Theresa, and Gavin Kendall. 2011. "Parrhesia and Democracy: Truthtelling, WikiLeaks and the Arab Spring." Social Alternatives 30, no.3: 10–14.

Schmitz, Paul. 2014. "How Change Happens: The Real Story of Mrs. Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott." Huffington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Slow Food. 2011. “Slow Food International: Good, Clean, and Fair Food.” Retrieved December 28, 2011 (

Snow, David, E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven , and Robert Benford. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51:464–481.

Snow, David A., and Robert D. Benford 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1:197–217.

Technopedia. 2014. "Anonymous." Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Texas Secede! 2009. “Texas Secession Facts.” Retrieved December 28, 2011 (

Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. New York: Mcgraw-Hill College.

Wagenseil, Paul. 2011. "Anonymous 'hacktivists' attack Egyptian websites." NBC News. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Walsh, Colleen. 2020. "MeToo Founder Discusses Where We Go From Here." The Harvard Gazette. February 21 2020. (

21.3 Social Change 2014. "" Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

ABC News. 2007. "Parents: Cyber Bullying Led to Teen's Suicide." Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

CBS News. 2011. “Record Year for Billion Dollar Disasters.” CBS News, Dec 11. Retrieved December 26, 2011 (

Center for Biological Diversity. 2014. "The Extinction Crisis. Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). n.d. "Technology and Youth: Protecting your Children from Electronic Aggression: Tip Sheet." Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

Freidman, Thomas. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century. New York, NY: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux.

Gao, Huiji, Geoffrey Barbier, and Rebecca Goolsby. 2011. "Harnessing the Crowdsourcing Power of Social Media for Disaster Relief." IEEE Intelligent Systems. 26, no. 03: 10–14.

Irwin, Patrick. 1975. “An Operational Definition of Societal Modernization.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 23:595–613.

Klein, Naomi. 2008. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Picador.

Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2014. The Sixth Extinction. New York: Henry Holt and Co.

Mahase, Elisabeth. 2019. "Cancer overtakes CVD to become leading cause of death in high income countries" The BMJ. September 3 2019. (

Miller, Laura. 2010. “Fresh Hell: What’s Behind the Boom in Dystopian Fiction for Young Readers?” The New Yorker, June 14. Retrieved December 26, 2011 (

Mullins, Dexter. 2014. "New Orleans to Be Home to Nation's First All-Charter School District." Al Jazeera America. Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

Robers, Simone, Jana Kemp, Jennifer, Truman, and Thomas D. Snyder. 2013. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice: Washington, DC. Retrieved December 17, 2014 (

Sullivan, Melissa. 2005. "How New Orleans' Evacuation Plan Fell Apart." NPR. Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

Wikia. 2014. "List of Environmental Organizations." Retrieved December 18, 2014 (

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