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20.1 Demography and Population


The population of the planet doubled in fifty years to reach _______ in 1999?

  1. 6 billion
  2. 7 billion
  3. 5 billion
  4. 10 billion

A functionalist would address which issue?

  1. The way inner-city areas become ghettoized and limit availability to jobs
  2. The way immigration and emigration trends strengthen global relationships
  3. The way racism and sexism impact the population composition of rural communities
  4. The way humans interact with environmental resources on a daily basis

What does carrying capacity refer to?

  1. The ability of a community to welcome new immigrants
  2. The capacity for globalism within a given ethnic group
  3. The amount of life that can be supported sustainably in a particular environment
  4. The amount of weight that urban centers can bear if vertical growth is mandated

What three factors did Malthus believe would limit human population?

  1. Self-preservation, old age, and illness
  2. Natural cycles, illness, and immigration
  3. Violence, new diseases, and old age
  4. War, famine, and disease

What does cornucopian theory believe?

  1. That human ingenuity will solve any issues that overpopulation creates
  2. That new diseases will always keep populations stable
  3. That the earth will naturally provide enough for whatever number of humans exist
  4. That the greatest risk is population reduction, not population growth

20.2 Urbanization


In the concentric zone model, Zone B is likely to house what?

  1. The city’s industrial center
  2. Wealthy commuter homes
  3. Formerly wealthy homes split into cheap apartments
  4. Rural outposts

What are the prerequisites for the existence of a city?

  1. Good environment with water and a favorable climate
  2. Advanced agricultural technology
  3. Strong social organization
  4. All of the above

In 2014, what was the largest city in the world?

  1. Delhi
  2. New York
  3. Shanghai
  4. Tokyo

What led to the creation of the exurbs?

  1. Urban sprawl and crowds moving into the city
  2. The high cost of suburban living
  3. The housing boom of the 1980s
  4. Gentrification

How are the suburbs of Paris different from those of most U.S. cities?

  1. They are connected by public transportation.
  2. There are more industrial and business opportunities there.
  3. They are synonymous with housing projects and urban poor.
  4. They are less populated.

How does gentrification affect cities?

  1. They become more crowded.
  2. Less affluent residents are pushed into less desirable areas.
  3. Traffic issues, including pollution, become worse.
  4. All of the above

What does human ecology theory address?

  1. The relationship between humans and their environments
  2. The way humans affect technology
  3. The way the human population reduces the variety of nonhuman species
  4. The relationship between humans and other species

Urbanization includes the sociological study of what?

  1. Urban economics
  2. Urban politics
  3. Urban environments
  4. All of the above

20.3 The Environment and Society


The “tragedy of the commons” is a reference to what?

  1. Global warming
  2. African landowners
  3. The common grazing lands in Oxford
  4. The misuse of private space

What are ways that human activity impacts the water supply?

  1. Creating sewage
  2. Spreading chemicals
  3. Increasing radioactivity
  4. All of the above

Which is an example of environmental racism?

  1. The fact that a disproportionate percentage of people of color live in environmentally hazardous areas
  2. Greenpeace protests
  3. The prevalence of asbestos in formerly “whites only” schools
  4. Prejudice similar to racism against people with different environmental views than one’s own

What is not a negative outcome of shoreline dredging?

  1. Damaged coral reefs
  2. Death of marine life
  3. Ruined sea grass beds
  4. Reduction of human population

What are the two primary methods of waste disposal?

  1. Landfill and incineration
  2. Incineration and compost
  3. Decomposition and incineration
  4. Marine dumping and landfills

Where does a large percentage of e-waste wind up?

  1. Incinerators
  2. Recycled in peripheral nations
  3. Repurposed into new electronics
  4. Dumped into ocean repositories

What types of municipal projects often result in environmental racism?

  1. Toxic dumps or other objectionable projects
  2. The location of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions
  3. Hospitals and other health and safety sites
  4. Public transportation options
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