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sustainable development
development that occurs without depleting or damaging the natural environment
those whose claim to refugee status have not been validated
cancer cluster
a geographic area with high levels of cancer within its population
carrying capacity
the amount of people that can live in a given area considering the amount of available resources
climate change
long-term shifts in temperature and climate due to human activity
concentric zone model
a model of human ecology that views cities as a series of circular rings or zones
cornucopian theory
a theory that asserts human ingenuity will rise to the challenge of providing adequate resources for a growing population
demographic transition theory
a theory that describes four stages of population growth, following patterns that connect birth and death rates with stages of industrial development
the study of population
the disposal of broken, obsolete, and worn-out electronics
environmental racism
the burdening of economically and socially disadvantaged communities with a disproportionate share of environmental hazards
environmental sociology
the sociological subfield that addresses the relationship between humans and the environment
communities that arise farther out than the suburbs and are typically populated by residents of high socioeconomic status
fertility rate
a measure noting the actual number of children born
hydraulic fracturing, a method used to recover gas and oil from shale by drilling down into the earth and directing a high-pressure mixture of water, sand, and proprietary chemicals into the rock
the entry of upper- and middle-class residents to city areas or communities that have been historically less affluent
human ecology
a functional perspective that looks at the relationship between people and their built and natural environment
internally displaced person
someone who fled his or her home while remaining inside the country’s borders
Malthusian theory
a theory asserting that population is controlled through positive checks (war, famine, disease) and preventive checks (measures to reduce fertility)
a large urban corridor that encompasses several cities and their surrounding suburbs and exurbs
the area that includes a city and its suburbs and exurbs
mortality rate
a measure of the number of people in a population who die
“Not In My Back Yard,” the tendency of people to protest poor environmental practices when those practices will affect them directly
the introduction of contaminants into an environment at levels that are damaging
population composition
a snapshot of the demographic profile of a population based on fertility, mortality, and migration rates
population pyramid
a graphic representation that depicts population distribution according to age and sex
an individual who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster
sex ratio
the ratio of men to women in a given population
the communities surrounding cities, typically close enough for a daily commute
urban sociology
the subfield of sociology that focuses on the study of urbanization
the study of the social, political, and economic relationships of cities
white flight
the migration of economically secure white people from racially mixed urban areas toward the suburbs
zero population growth
a theoretical goal in which the number of people entering a population through birth or immigration is equal to the number of people leaving it via death or emigration
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