2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research
The 1st step of the scientific method:
- Collect and analyze data
- Summarize the articles
- Ask a question about a topic
- Create a hypothesis
A measurement is considered ________ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure, according to the topic of the study.
Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ________ causes change in another.
- test subject
- operational definition
In a study, a group of ten-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?
- The doughnuts
- The boys
- The duration of a week
- The weight gained
Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”?
- Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing video games
- A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease
- Body weight at least 20 percent higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height
- The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations
2.2 Research Methods
Which materials are considered secondary data?
- Photos and letters given to you by another person
- Books and articles written by other authors about their studies
- Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results
- Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewed
Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants?
- Participants do not know they are part of a study
- The researcher has no control over who is in the study
- It is larger than an ordinary sample
- Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study
What research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletown study?
- Secondary data
- Participant observation
Which research approach is best suited to the scientific method?
- Case study
- Secondary data analysis
The main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is:
- ethnography isn’t based on hypothesis testing
- ethnography subjects are unaware they’re being studied
- ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups
- ethnography focuses on how subjects view themselves in relationship to the community
Which best describes the results of a case study?
- It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth
- Its results are not generally applicable
- It relies solely on secondary data analysis
- All of the above
Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method.
2.3 Ethical Concerns
Which statement illustrates value neutrality?
- Obesity in children is obviously a result of parental neglect and, therefore, schools should take a greater role to prevent it
- In 2003, states like Arkansas adopted laws requiring elementary schools to remove soft drink vending machines from schools
- Merely restricting children’s access to junk food at school is not enough to prevent obesity
- Physical activity and healthy eating are a fundamental part of a child’s education
Which person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality?
- Institutional Review Board (IRB)
- Peter Rossi
- American Sociological Association (ASA)
- Max Weber
To study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?
- A fast-food restaurant
- A nonprofit health organization
- A private hospital
- A governmental agency like Health and Social Services