Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo


Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (

Bradbury Jones, C. and Isham, L. (2020), The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID 19 on domestic violence. J Clin Nurs, 29: 2047-2049. doi:10.1111/jocn.15296

Gerell, M., Kardell, J., & Kindgren, J. (2020, May 2). Minor covid-19 association with crime in Sweden, a ten week follow up.

Rotton, James, and Ivan W. Kelly. 1985. “Much Ado about the Full Moon: A Meta-analysis of Lunar-Lunacy Research.”

Psychological Bulletin 97 (no. 2): 286–306.

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research

Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (

Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.

Merton, Robert. 1968 [1949]. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

“Scientific Method Lab,” the University of Utah, (

2.2 Research Methods

Butsch, Richard. 2000. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben Wattenberg. 2000. “The First Measured Century: Middletown.” The First Measured Century. PBS. Retrieved February 23, 2012 (

Click, M., Lee, H., & Holladay, H. (2013). Making monsters: Lady Gaga, fan identification, and social media. Popular Music and Society, 36(3), 360–379.

Dilling-Hansen, Lise. 2015. “Affective Fan Experiences of Lady Gaga.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 20.

Durkheim, Émile. 1966 [1897]. Suicide. New York: Free Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah. n.d. “Dorothy E. Smith Award Statement” American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 19, 2014 (

Franke, Richard, and James Kaul. 1978. “The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation.” American Sociological Review 43(5):632–643.

Grice, Elizabeth. “Cry of an Enfant Sauvage.” The Telegraph. Retrieved July 20, 2011 (

Griffin, F. J. (2011). At last . . . ? : Michelle obama, beyoncé, race & history. Daedalus, 140(1), 131-141,8. Retrieved from

Heussenstamm, Frances K. 1971. “Bumper Stickers and Cops” Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society 4:32–33.

Igo, Sarah E. 2008. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kumari, A. (2016), “Yoü and I”: Identity and the Performance of Self in Lady Gaga and Beyoncé. J Pop Cult, 49: 403-416. doi:10.1111/jpcu.12405

Jang, S. M., & Lee, H. (2014). When Pop Music Meets a Political Issue: Examining How “Born This Way” Influences Attitudes Toward Gays and Gay Rights Policies. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 58(1), 114–130.

Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. 1959. Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.

Lynd, Staughton. 2005. “Making Middleton.” Indiana Magazine of History 101(3):226–238.

Pew Research Center. 2014. “Ebola Worries Rise, But Most Are ‘Fairly’ Confident in Government, Hospitals to Deal with Disease: Broad Support for U.S. Efforts to Deal with Ebola in West Africa.” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 21. Retrieved October 25, 2014 (

Rothman, Rodney. 2000. “My Fake Job.” Pp. 120 in The New Yorker, November 27.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. n.d. “Institutional Ethnography.” Retrieved October 19, 2014 (

Sonnenfeld, Jeffery A. 1985. “Shedding Light on the Hawthorne Studies.” Journal of Occupational Behavior 6:125.

Sascha Buchanan. (2019). Competition and controlling images as the fuel igniting Beyoncé and Rihanna fandom fights. Transformative Works and Cultures, 29.

Turbek, S.P., Chock, T.M., Donahue, K., Havrilla, C.A., Oliverio, A.M., Polutchko, S.K., Shoemaker, L.G. and Vimercati, L. (2016), Scientific Writing Made Easy: A Step by Step Guide to Undergraduate Writing in the Biological Sciences. Bull Ecol Soc Am, 97: 417-426. doi:10.1002/bes2.1258

2.3 Ethical Concerns

Caplain, Arthur (2007). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. BioSocieties, 2(2).

Code of Ethics. 1999. American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 1, 2011 (

Khan FA. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. J IMA. 2011;43(2):93-94. doi:10.5915/43-2-8609

Nardi, P. (1995). “The Breastplate of Righteousness”: Twenty-Five Years After Laud Humphreys’ Tearoom Trade; Impersonal Sex in Public Places. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(2), 1–10.

Rossi, Peter H. 1987. “No Good Applied Social Research Goes Unpunished.” Society 25(1):73–79.

Shah, S. (2010). Henrietta Lacks’ story. The Lancet, 375(9721), 1154–1154.

Valentine, Austin, “A Look Into the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male in Macon County, Alabama“ (2019). Student Scholarship & Creative Works. 9.

Vogels, S. (2014). The Milgram experiment: Its impact and interpretation.

Weber, Max. 1949. Methodology of the Social Sciences. Translated by H. Shils and E. Finch. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Wikipedia contributors. (2020, June 28). Milgram experiment. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:33, July 18, 2020, from

Wikipedia contributors. (2020, July 14). Laud Humphreys. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:24, July 18, 2020, from

Zimbardo, P., & Musen, K. (2004). Quiet Rage The Stanford Prison Experiment. Philip G. Zimbardo and Stanford University.

Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jan 18, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.