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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Introduction to Sociology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Sociology?
    3. 1.2 The History of Sociology
    4. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology
    5. 1.4 Why Study Sociology?
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  3. 2 Sociological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research
    3. 2.2 Research Methods
    4. 2.3 Ethical Concerns
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  4. 3 Culture
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 What Is Culture?
    3. 3.2 Elements of Culture
    4. 3.3 High, Low, Pop, Sub, Counter-culture and Cultural Change
    5. 3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  5. 4 Society and Social Interaction
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Types of Societies
    3. 4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society
    4. 4.3 Social Constructions of Reality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  6. 5 Socialization
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Theories of Self-Development
    3. 5.2 Why Socialization Matters
    4. 5.3 Agents of Socialization
    5. 5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  7. 6 Groups and Organization
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Types of Groups
    3. 6.2 Group Size and Structure
    4. 6.3 Formal Organizations
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  8. 7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Deviance and Control
    3. 7.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
    4. 7.3 Crime and the Law
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  9. 8 Media and Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Technology Today
    3. 8.2 Media and Technology in Society
    4. 8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology
    5. 8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  10. 9 Social Stratification in the United States
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Social Stratification?
    3. 9.2 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States
    4. 9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality
    5. 9.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  11. 10 Global Inequality
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Global Stratification and Classification
    3. 10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty
    4. 10.3 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  12. 11 Race and Ethnicity
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
    3. 11.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity
    4. 11.3 Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism
    5. 11.4 Intergroup Relationships
    6. 11.5 Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  13. 12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Sex, Gender, Identity, and Expression
    3. 12.2 Gender and Gender Inequality
    4. 12.3 Sexuality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  14. 13 Aging and the Elderly
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society
    3. 13.2 The Process of Aging
    4. 13.3 Challenges Facing the Elderly
    5. 13.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  15. 14 Relationships, Marriage, and Family
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?
    3. 14.2 Variations in Family Life
    4. 14.3 Challenges Families Face
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  16. 15 Religion
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Sociological Approach to Religion
    3. 15.2 World Religions
    4. 15.3 Religion in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  17. 16 Education
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Education around the World
    3. 16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education
    4. 16.3 Issues in Education
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  18. 17 Government and Politics
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Power and Authority
    3. 17.2 Forms of Government
    4. 17.3 Politics in the United States
    5. 17.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  19. 18 Work and the Economy
    1. Introduction to Work and the Economy
    2. 18.1 Economic Systems
    3. 18.2 Globalization and the Economy
    4. 18.3 Work in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  20. 19 Health and Medicine
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 The Social Construction of Health
    3. 19.2 Global Health
    4. 19.3 Health in the United States
    5. 19.4 Comparative Health and Medicine
    6. 19.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  21. 20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Demography and Population
    3. 20.2 Urbanization
    4. 20.3 The Environment and Society
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  22. 21 Social Movements and Social Change
    1. Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change
    2. 21.1 Collective Behavior
    3. 21.2 Social Movements
    4. 21.3 Social Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. References
  23. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
    20. Chapter 20
    21. Chapter 21
  24. Index

Introduction

Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved December 30, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/).

Bradbury Jones, C. and Isham, L. (2020), The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID 19 on domestic violence. J Clin Nurs, 29: 2047-2049. doi:10.1111/jocn.15296

Gerell, M., Kardell, J., & Kindgren, J. (2020, May 2). Minor covid-19 association with crime in Sweden, a ten week follow up. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/w7gka

Rotton, James, and Ivan W. Kelly. 1985. “Much Ado about the Full Moon: A Meta-analysis of Lunar-Lunacy Research.”

Psychological Bulletin 97 (no. 2): 286–306.

2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research

Arkowitz, Hal, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. 2009. “Lunacy and the Full Moon: Does a full moon really trigger strange behavior?” Scientific American. Retrieved October 20, 2014 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lunacy-and-the-full-moon/).

Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Anchor Books.

Merton, Robert. 1968 [1949]. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

“Scientific Method Lab,” the University of Utah, (http://aspire.cosmic-ray.org/labs/scientific_method/sci_method_main.html).

2.2 Research Methods

Butsch, Richard. 2000. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750–1990. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben Wattenberg. 2000. “The First Measured Century: Middletown.” The First Measured Century. PBS. Retrieved February 23, 2012 (http://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htm).

Click, M., Lee, H., & Holladay, H. (2013). Making monsters: Lady Gaga, fan identification, and social media. Popular Music and Society, 36(3), 360–379. https://doi.org/10.1080/03007766.2013.798546

Dilling-Hansen, Lise. 2015. “Affective Fan Experiences of Lady Gaga.” Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 20. https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2015.0662.

Durkheim, Émile. 1966 [1897]. Suicide. New York: Free Press.

Fenstermaker, Sarah. n.d. “Dorothy E. Smith Award Statement” American Sociological Association. Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://www.asanet.org/about/awards/duboiscareer/smith.cfm).

Franke, Richard, and James Kaul. 1978. “The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation.” American Sociological Review 43(5):632–643.

Grice, Elizabeth. “Cry of an Enfant Sauvage.” The Telegraph. Retrieved July 20, 2011 (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/3653890/Cry-of-an-enfant-sauvage.html).

Griffin, F. J. (2011). At last . . . ? : Michelle obama, beyoncé, race & history. Daedalus, 140(1), 131-141,8. Retrieved from https://libproxy.uhcl.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/848998668?accountid=7108

Heussenstamm, Frances K. 1971. “Bumper Stickers and Cops” Trans-action: Social Science and Modern Society 4:32–33.

Igo, Sarah E. 2008. The Averaged American: Surveys, Citizens, and the Making of a Mass Public. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kumari, A. (2016), “Yoü and I”: Identity and the Performance of Self in Lady Gaga and Beyoncé. J Pop Cult, 49: 403-416. doi:10.1111/jpcu.12405

Jang, S. M., & Lee, H. (2014). When Pop Music Meets a Political Issue: Examining How “Born This Way” Influences Attitudes Toward Gays and Gay Rights Policies. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 58(1), 114–130. https://doi-org.libproxy.uhcl.edu/10.1080/08838151.2013.875023

Lynd, Robert S., and Helen Merrell Lynd. 1959. Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Javanovich.

Lynd, Staughton. 2005. “Making Middleton.” Indiana Magazine of History 101(3):226–238.

Mihelich, John, and John Papineau. Aug 2005. “Parrotheads in Margaritaville: Fan Practice, Oppositional Culture, and Embedded Cultural Resistance in Buffett Fandom.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 17(2):175–202.

Pew Research Center. 2014. “Ebola Worries Rise, But Most Are ‘Fairly’ Confident in Government, Hospitals to Deal with Disease: Broad Support for U.S. Efforts to Deal with Ebola in West Africa.” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 21. Retrieved October 25, 2014 (http://www.people-press.org/2014/10/21/ebola-worries-rise-but-most-are-fairly-confident-in-government-hospitals-to-deal-with-disease/).

Rothman, Rodney. 2000. “My Fake Job.” Pp. 120 in The New Yorker, November 27.

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. n.d. “Institutional Ethnography.” Retrieved October 19, 2014 (http://web.uvic.ca/~mariecam/kgSite/institutionalEthnography.html).

Sonnenfeld, Jeffery A. 1985. “Shedding Light on the Hawthorne Studies.” Journal of Occupational Behavior 6:125.

Sascha Buchanan. (2019). Competition and controlling images as the fuel igniting Beyoncé and Rihanna fandom fights. Transformative Works and Cultures, 29. https://doaj.org/article/557dc6f3b65a4e168f22a243eed914e2

Turbek, S.P., Chock, T.M., Donahue, K., Havrilla, C.A., Oliverio, A.M., Polutchko, S.K., Shoemaker, L.G. and Vimercati, L. (2016), Scientific Writing Made Easy: A Step by Step Guide to Undergraduate Writing in the Biological Sciences. Bull Ecol Soc Am, 97: 417-426. doi:10.1002/bes2.1258

2.3 Ethical Concerns

Caplain, Arthur (2007). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. BioSocieties, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1745855207225529

Code of Ethics. 1999. American Sociological Association. Retrieved July 1, 2011 (http://www.asanet.org/about/ethics.cfm).

Khan FA. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. J IMA. 2011;43(2):93-94. doi:10.5915/43-2-8609

Nardi, P. (1995). “The Breastplate of Righteousness”: Twenty-Five Years After Laud Humphreys’ Tearoom Trade; Impersonal Sex in Public Places. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(2), 1–10. http://search.proquest.com/docview/204986635/

Rossi, Peter H. 1987. “No Good Applied Social Research Goes Unpunished.” Society 25(1):73–79.

Shah, S. (2010). Henrietta Lacks’ story. The Lancet, 375(9721), 1154–1154. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60500-4

Valentine, Austin, “A Look Into the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male in Macon County, Alabama“ (2019). Student Scholarship & Creative Works. 9. https://digitalcommons.murraystate.edu/sscw/9

Vogels, S. (2014). The Milgram experiment: Its impact and interpretation.

Weber, Max. 1949. Methodology of the Social Sciences. Translated by H. Shils and E. Finch. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Wikipedia contributors. (2020, June 28). Milgram experiment. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19:33, July 18, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milgram_experiment&oldid=964989892

Wikipedia contributors. (2020, July 14). Laud Humphreys. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 21:24, July 18, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Laud_Humphreys&oldid=967693266

Zimbardo, P., & Musen, K. (2004). Quiet Rage The Stanford Prison Experiment. Philip G. Zimbardo and Stanford University.

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