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Introduction to Work and the Economy

National Equal Pay Task Force. 2013. "Fifty Years After the Equal Pay Act: Assessing the Past, Taking Stock of the Future." Retrieved December 15, 2014. ( 2020. "State of the Gender Pay Gap 2020." (

State of Michigan, The. n.d. "Detrioit's Financial Crisis: What You Need to Know." Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2014. "Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation and Costs." Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

Woolston, Chris. 2021. "Pay gap widens between men and women scientists in North America." Nature Career News. February 11 2021. (

18.1 Economic Systems

Abbott, Chuck. 2020. "Record High Ag Subsidies To Supply 39% of Farm Income.", December 2020. (

Abramovitz, Moses. 1986. “Catching Up, Forging Ahead and Falling Behind.” Journal of Economic History 46(2):385–406. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Antony, James. 1998. “Exploring the Factors that Influence Men and Women to Form Medical Career Aspirations.” Journal of College Student Development 39:417–426.

Bond, Eric, Sheena Gingerich, Oliver Archer-Antonsen, Liam Purcell, and Elizabeth Macklem. 2003. The Industrial Revolution—Innovations. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Congressional Research Service. 2021. "Unemployment Rates During the COVID-19 Pandemic." January 2021. (

Dalio, Ray. 2019. "Why and How Capitalism Needs To Be Reformed Parts 1&2." LinkedIn Personal Post. April 5 2019. (

Davis, Kingsley, and Wilbert Moore. 1945. “Some Principles of Stratification.” American Sociological Review 10:242–249.

Diamond, J., and P. Bellwood. 2003. “Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions.” Science April 25, pp. 597-603.

Domhoff, G. William. 2011. “Wealth Income and Power.” Who Rules America. Retrieved January 25, 2012 (

European Union. 2014."On the Road to EU Membership." Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

European Union. 2014. "EU Member Countries". Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

Fidrmuc, Jan. 2002. “Economic Reform, Democracy and Growth During Post-Communist Transition.” European Journal of Political Economy 19(30):583–604. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Goldsborough, Reid. 2010. "World's First Coin." Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Gregory, Paul R., and Robert C. Stuart. 2003. Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First Century. Boston, MA: South-Western College Publishing.

Greisman, Harvey C., and George Ritzer. 1981 “Max Weber ,Critical Theory, and the Administered World.” Qualitative Sociology 4(1):34–55. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Horne, Charles F. 1915. The Code of Hammurabi : Introduction.Yale University. Retrieved (

Kenessey, Zoltan. 1987. “The Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Sectors of the Economy.” The Review of Income and Wealth 33(4):359–386.

Kerr, Clark, John T. Dunlap, Frederick H. Harbison, and Charles A. Myers. 1960. Industrialism and Industrial Man. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Kohn, Melvin, Atsushi Naoi, Carrie Schoenbach, Carmi Schooler, and Kazimierz Slomczynski. 1990. “Position in the Class Structure and Psychological Functioning in the United States, Japan, and Poland.” American Journal of Sociology 95:964–1008.

Maddison, Angus. 2003. The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Paris: Development Centre, OECD. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1998 [1848]. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Penguin.

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. 1988 [1844]. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 and the Communist Manifesto, translated by M. Milligan. New York: Prometheus Books.

Mauss, Marcel. 1990 [1922]. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, London: Routledge.

Merton, Robert. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. 2010 [1840]. Property Is Theft! A Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Anthology. Iain McKay Ed. Retrieved February 15, 2012 (

Schwermer, Heidemarie. 2007. “Gib und Nimm.” Retrieved January 22, 2012 (

Schwermer, Heidemarie. 2011. Living Without Money. Retrieved January 22, 2012 (

Sokoloff, Kenneth L., and Stanley L. Engerman. 2000. “History Lessons: Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(3)3:217–232.

Sunyal, Ayda, Onur Sunyal, and Fatma Yasin. 2011. “A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners.” Social Indicators Research 102:265–273.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. “Employment by Major Industry Sector.” Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

18.2 Globalization and the Economy

Abedian, Araj. 2002. “Economic Globalization: Some Pros and Cons.” Papers from the Sixth Conference of the International Environment Forum, World Summit on Sustainable Development. Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrieved January 24, 2012 (

Bakan, Joel. 2004. The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power. New York: Free Press.

Bhagwati, Jagdish. 2004. In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Boswell, Terry and Dimitris Stevis. 1997. “Globalization and International Labor Organization.” Work and Occupations 24:288–308.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2014. "The World Factbook: Country Comparison: GDP Per Capita (PPP)." Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

Koroma, Suffyan. 2007. “Globalization, Agriculture, and the Least Developed Countries.” United Nations Ministerial Conference on the Least Developed Countries. Istanbul, Turkey.

Plahe, Jagjit. 2005. “The Global Commodity Chain Approach (GCC) Approach and the Organizational Transformation of Agriculture.” Monash University. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Parks, James. 2011. “Report: NAFTA Has Cost 683,000 Jobs and Counting,” AFL-CIO Blog, May 3. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Sassen, Saskia. 2001. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Speth, James G., ed. 2003. Worlds Apart: Globalization and the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.

The United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 1973. “Multinational Corporations in World Development.” New York: United Nations Publication.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World System. New York: Academic Press.

18.3 Work in the United States

Autor, David. 2010. “The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market Implications for Employment and Earnings.” MIT Department of Economics and National Bureau of Economic Research, April. Retrieved February 15, 2012 (

Batalova, Jeanne, and Aaron Terrazas. 2010. “Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States.” Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Brady, David, Andrew Fullerton, and Jennifer Moren Cross. 2010. “More Than Just Nickels and Dimes: A Cross-National Analysis of Working Poverty in Affluent Democracies.” Social Problems 57:559–585. Retrieved February 15, 2012 (

DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, and Bernadette D. Proctor. 2013. "Income and Poverty in the United States: 2013." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

Hainmueller, Jens, and Michael J. Hiscox. 2010. “Attitudes Toward Highly Skilled and Low-Skilled Immigration: Evidence from a Survey Experiment.” American Political Science Review 104:61–84.

Holland, Laurence H.M. and David M. Ewalt. 2006. “Making Real Money in Virtual Worlds,” Forbes, August 7. Retrieved January 30, 2012 (

Kochhar, Rokesh. 2010. “After the Great Recession: Foreign Born Gain Jobs; Native Born Lose Jobs.” Pew Hispanic Center, October 29. Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Lowell, Lindsay B., Julia Gelatt, and Jeanne Batalova. 2006. “Immigrants and Labor Force Trends: the Future, Past, and Present.” Migration Policy Institute Insight No. 17. Retrieved February 6, 2012 (

Nobles, Allison. 2019. "Poverty is Expensive." The Society Pages. November 27 2019. (

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006–2007 ed. Retrieved from February 15, 2012 (

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. “Overview of the 2008-2018 Projections.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010–2011 ed. Retrieved February 15, 2012 (

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2011. “A Profile of the Working Poor, 2009.” Retrieved January 25, 2012 (

U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2012. "Employment Projections–2010–20." U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013. "Occupational Employment Projections to 2022." Department of Labor. Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013. "Table 7: Employment by Summary Education and Training Assignment, 2012 and Projected 2022." United States Department of Labor. Retrieved December 15, 2014. (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States.” Retrieved February 15, 2012 (

Wang, Wendy and Kim Parker. 2011. “Women See Value and Benefit of College; Men Lag Behind on Both Fronts.” Pew Social and Demographic Trends, August 17. Retrieved January 30, 2012 (

Wheaton, Sarah. 2011. “Perry Repeats Socialist Charge Against Obama Policies.” New York Times, September 15. Retrieved January 30, 2012 (

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