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Abel, Jaison R. and Dietz, Richard. 2019 “Despite Rising Costs, College Is Still a Good Investment.” New York Federal Reserve, Liberty Street Economics. (

Kerr, Emma. 2020. “See 10 Average Years of Student Loan Debt.” US News and World Reports. (

Leonhardt, David. 2014. “Is College Worth It? Clearly , New Data Say.” The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Lorin Janet, and Jeanna Smialek. 2014. “College Graduates Struggle to Find Eployment Worth a Degree.” Bloomberg. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

New Oxford English Dictionary. “contradiction.” New Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Plumer, Brad. 2013. “Only 27 percent of college graduates have a job related ot their major.” The Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Simon, R David. 1995. Social Problems and the Sociological Imagination: A Paradigm for Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

16.1 Education around the World

Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2010. "What We Can Learn from Finland's Successful School Reform." NEA Today Magazine. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Durkheim, Émile. 1898 [1956]. Education and Sociology. New York: Free Press. 2019. “U.S. Public Education Statistics.” (

Gross-Loh, Christine. 2014. "Finnish Education Chief: 'We Created a School System Based on Equality.'" The Atlantic. Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Mills v. Board of Education, 348 DC 866 (1972).

National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. 2006. Measuring UP: The National Report Card on Higher Education. Retrieved December 9, 2011 (

National Public Radio. 2010. “Study Confirms U.S. Falling Behind in Education.” All Things Considered, December 10. Retrieved December 9, 2011 (

OECD. 2019. “PISA Results from 2018: Country Note: USA.” (

Pellissier, Hank. 2010. “High Test Scores, Higher Expectations, and Presidential Hype.” Great Schools. Retrieved January 17, 2012 (

Rampell, Catherine. 2009. “Of All States, New York’s Schools Spend Most Money Per Pupil.” Economix. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2014. "Public Education Finances 2012." Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

World Bank. 2011. “Education in Afghanistan.” Retrieved December 14, 2011 (

16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education

American Federation for Children. 2017. “Why I Support School Choice, An Advocate’s Story. (

Berlinsky-Schine, Laura. 2020. “What Is Grade Inflation?” College Vine. (

Boleslavsky, Raphael and Christopher Cotton. 2014. “Unrecognised Benefits of Grade Inflation.” VOXEU. (

Education Week. 2004. “Tracking.” Education Week, August 4. Retrieved February 24, 2012 (

Godofsky, Jessica, Cliff Zukin, and Carl Van Horn. 2011. Unfulfilled Expectations: Recent College Graduates Struggle in a Troubled Economy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University.

Greason, Grace. 2020. “Make Harvard Grade Again.” Harvard Political Review. March 21, 2020. (

Iversen, Jeremy. 2006. High School Confidential. New York: Atria.

Jaschik, Scott. 2016. “Grade Inflation, Higher and Higher.” Inside Higher Ed. (

Lauen, Douglas Lee and Karolyn Tyson. 2008. “Perspectives from the Disciplines: Sociological Contribution to Education Policy Research and Debate.” AREA Handbook on Education Policy Research. Retrieved February 24, 2012.

Murphy, James S. 2017. “Should We Be Worried About High School Grade Inflation.” Inside Higher Ed. (

National Public Radio. 2004. “Princeton Takes Steps to Fight ‘Grade Inflation.’” Day to Day, April 28.

Mansfield, Harvey C. 2001. “Grade Inflation: It’s Time to Face the Facts.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 47(30): B24.

Merton, Robert K. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

UNESCO. 2005. Towards Knowledge Societies: UNESCO World Report. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.

Swift SA, Moore DA, Sharek ZS, Gino F (2013) Inflated Applicants: Attribution Errors in Performance Evaluation by Professionals. PLoS ONE 8(7): e69258. (

World Bank. 2007. World Development Report. Washington, DC: World Bank.

16.3 Issues in Education

CBS News. 2011. “NYC Charter School's $125,000 Experiment.” CBS, March 10. Retrieved December 14, 2011 (

Chapman, Ben, and Rachel Monahan. 2012. "Talking Pineapple Question on State Exam Stumps...Everyone!" Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

Coleman, James S. 1966. Equality of Educational Opportunity Study. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

The Common Core State Standards Initiative. 2014. "About the Standards." Retrieved December 12, 2014. (

CREDO, Stanford University. "Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States," published in 2009. Accessed on December 31, 2014 (

Holt, Emily W., Daniel J. McGrath, and Marily M. Seastrom. 2006. “Qualifications of Public Secondary School History Teachers, 1999-2001.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Hui, Keung. 2019. “1 in 5 NC Students Don’t Attend Traditional Public Schools.” The News and Observer. July 18 2019. (

Jaschik, Scott. 2021. “From Year 1 To Year 2.” Inside Higher Ed. (

Jeffries, Hasan Kwame and Jones, Patrick D. 2012 “Desegregating New York: The Case of the 'Harlem Nine'”. OAH Magazine of History, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 51–53, (

Koenig, Rebecca. 2020. “Colleges Lost Nearly Half a Million Enrollments This Fall.” EdSurge. December 2020. (

Lewin, Tamar. 2011. “College Graduates Debt Burden Grew, Yet Again, in 2010.” The New York Times, November 2. Retrieved January 17, 2012 (

Morse et al. v. Frederick, 439 F. 3d 1114 (2007).

National Center for Education Statistics. 2008. “1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007.” Retrieved January 17, 2012 (

National Council on Disability. 2004. “Improving Educational Outcomes for Students with Disabilities.” (

NCES. 2020. “The Condition of Education: Students With Disabilities.” National Center for Education Statistics. (

PBS. 2000. Wallace Quotes. Retrieved December 15, 2011 (

Resnick, Michael A. 2004. “Public Education—An American Imperative: Why Public Schools Are Vital to the Well-Being of Our Nation.” Policy Research Brief. Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association.

Saad, Lydia. 2008. “U.S. Education System Garners Split Reviews.” Gallup. Retrieved January 17, 2012 (

Samuels, Christina A. 2019. “Special Education Is Broken.” EdWeek, January 2019. (

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