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Gardner, Amanda. 2013. “More U.S. Couples Living Together Instead of Marrying, CDC Finds.” Retrieved December 29, 2014 (

Rettner, Rachel. 2013. “More Couples Living Together Outside of Marriage.” MyHealthNewsDaily/Purch. Retrieved December 29, 2014 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2008. “50 Million Children Lived with Married Parents in 2007.” July 28. Retrieved January 16, 2012 (

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14.1 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?

Altman, Irwin, and Joseph Ginat. 1996. Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Barroso, Amanda and Parker, Kim and Bennett, Jesse. 2020. “As Millennials Near 40, They’re Approaching Family Life Differently Than Previous Generations.” Pew Research Center. (

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Museum of Broadcast Communications. 2010. “Family on Television.” Retrieved January 16, 2012.

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Pew Research Center. 2010. “The Decline of Marriage and Rise of New Families.” November 18. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Powell, Brian, Catherine Bolzendahl, Claudia Geist, and Lala Carr Steelman. 2010. Counted Out: Same-Sex Relations and Americans’ Definitions of Family. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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Useem, Andrea. 2007. “What to Expect When You’re Expecting a Co-Wife.” Slate, July 24. Retrieved January 16, 2012 (

14.2 Variations in Family Life

Affronti, M., Rittner, B., & Semanchin Jones, A. M. 2015. “Functional adaptation to foster care: Foster care alumni speak out.” Journal of Public Child Welfare, 9, 1–21. doi: 10.1080/15548732.2014.978930

Bakalar, Nicholas. 2010. “Education, Faith, and a Likelihood to Wed.” New York Times, March 22. Retrieved February 14, 2012 (

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Coltrane, Scott. 2000. “Research on Household Labor: Modeling and Measuring the Social Embeddedness of Routine Family Work.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:1209–1233.

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De Toledo, Sylvie, and Deborah Edler Brown. 1995. Grandparents as Parents: A Survival Guide for Raising a Second Family. New York: Guilford Press.

Gurrentz, Benjamin. 2018. “Cohabitation Is Up, Marriage is Down for Young Adults.” U.S. Census Bureau. (

Hegar, R. L., & Rosenthal, J. A. 2011. “Foster children placed with or separated from siblings: Outcomes based on a national sample.” Children and Youth Services Review, 33(7), 1245–1253. doi: 10.1016/j. childyouth.2011.02.020

Hurley, Dan. 2005. “Divorce Rate: It’s Not as High as You Think.” New York Times, April 19. Retrieved February 14, 2012 (

Jayson, Sharon. 2010. “Report: Cohabiting Has Little Effect on Marriage Success.” USA Today, October 14. Retrieved February 14, 2012 (

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Livingston, Gretchen. 2018. “About One-Third of U.S. Children Are Living with An Unmarried Parent.” Pew Research Center. (

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Venugopal, Arun. 2011. “New York Leads in Never-Married Women.” WNYC, December 10. Retrieved February 14, 2012 (

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14.3 Challenges Families Face

Amato, Paul. 2000. “What Children Learn From Divorce.” Journal of Family Issues 21(8):1061–1086.

American Community Survey. 2011. “Marital Events of Americans: 2009.” The U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 16, 2012 (

Anderson, Lydia and Scherer, Zachary. 2020. “See How Marriage and Divorce Rates In Your State Stack Up.” U.S. Census Bureau. (

Barr, Ronald. 2007. “What Is All That Crying About?” Bulletin of the Centres of Excellence for Children’s Wellbeing 6(2).

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Berlin, Lisa. 2009. “Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers.” Child Development 80(5):1403–1420.

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Kreider, Rose. 2006. “Remarriage in the United States.” U.S. Census Bureau.

McKay, Stephen. 2010. “The Effects of Twins and Multiple Births on Families and Their Living Standards.” University of Birmingham. Retrieved February 24, 2012 (

McLanahan, Sara, and Gary Sandefur. 1997. Growing Up With a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

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Popenoe, David, and Barbara D. Whitehead. 2004. “Ten Important Research Findings on Marriage and Choosing a Marriage Partner.” University of Virginia/National Marriage Project/The State of Our Unions. Retrieved January 16, 2012.

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