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Boston University School of Medicine. 2014. “New England Centenarian Study Overview.” Retrieved November 2, 2014 (

Diebel, Matthew. 2014. “Yes, Six People Born in the 19th Century Are Still With Us.” USA Today. Retrieved November 2, 2014 (

Gerontology Research Group. 2014. “Current Validated Living Supercentenarians.” Retrieved November 2, 2014 (

United States Census Bureau. 2011. “Census Bureau Releases Comprehensive Analysis of Fast-Growing 90-and0Older Population.” Newsroom Archive, November 17. Retrieved November 1, 2014 (

13.1 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society

Bannister, Judith, David E. Bloom, and Larry Rosenberg. 2010. Population Aging and Economic Growth in China. Cambridge, MA: The Program on the Global Demography of Aging.

Bartram, L., and B. Roe. 2005. “Dependency Ratios: Useful Policy-Making Tools?” Geriatrics & Gerontology International 5:224–228.

Bierman, Libby. 2011. “The Baby Boom = The BIG Boom in Healthcare.” Forbes, July 22. Retrieved January 31, 2012 (

Bookman, Ann, and Delia Kimbrel. 2011. “Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century.” The Future of Children 21:117–140.

Bostrom, Josh. 2005. “Aging Baby Boomers Will Drive Health-Care Innovation.” Infoworld. Retrieved January 31, 2012 (

Cohn, D'Vera and Passel, Jeffrey S. 2018. “A Record 64 Million Americans Live in Multigenerational Households.” Pew Research Center. (

Congressional Budget Office. 2008. “Long-Term Outlook for Medicare, Medicaid and Total Health Care Spending.” Retrieved January 31, 2012 (

Emling, Shelley. 2017. (“The Age At Which You Are Officially Old.”) AARP. (

Farrel, Diana, David Court, Eric Beinhocker, John Forsyth, Ezra Greenberg, Suruchi Shukla, Jonathan Ablett, and Geoffrey Greene. 2008. Talkin' 'Bout My Generation: The Economic Impact of Aging US Baby Boomers. McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved February 12, 2012 (

Gerontological Society of America. 2008. “Baby Boomer Health Care Crisis Looms.” Science Daily, April 17. Retrieved January 31, 2012 (

Gilleard, Chris, and Paul Higgs. 2007. “The Third Age and the Baby Boomers: Two Approaches to the Social Structuring of Later Life.” International Journal of Ageing and Later Life 2(2):13–30.

Graham, Judith. 2021. “Older Adults Without Family or Friends Lag in Race to Get Vaccines.” KHN. (

Hamilton, Gary. 1990. “Patriarchy, Patrimonialism, and Filial Piety: A Comparison of China and Western Europe.” British Journal of Sociology 41:77–104.

Hashimoto, Akiko. 1996. The Gift of Generations: Japanese and American Perspectives on Aging and the Social Contract. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hobbs, Frank. 1994. “The Elderly Population.” Population Profile of the United States. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Hsu, Francis. 1971. “Filial Piety in Japan and China: Borrowing, Variation and Significance.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 2:67–74.

Lee, Mary. 2009. “Trends in Global Population Growth.” Research Starters Sociology: Academic Topic Overview. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from (

Levy, Becca R., Martin D. Slade, Suzanne R. Kunkel, and Stanislav V. Kasl, 2002. “Longevity Increased by Positive Self-perceptions of Aging.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83(2):261–270.

Logan, J.R., R. Ward, and G. Spitze. 1992. “As Old as You Feel: Age Identity in Middle and Later Life.” Sociological Forces 71:451–67.

Macunovich, Diane J. 2000. The Baby Boomers. New York: Barnard College Department of Economics.

Mujahid, G. 2006. “Population Ageing in East and South-East Asia: Current Situation and Emerging Challenges.” Papers in Population Ageing No.1. New York: United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Native News Network. 2011. “Age Distribution: AIAN Compared to Total US.” Retrieved January 22, 2012 (

Ogawa, Naohiro, and Robert Retherford. 1993. “Care of the Elderly in Japan: Changing Norms and Expectations.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:585–597.

Pew Research Center. 2010. “The Return of the Multi-Generational Family Household.” Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends; Section I. Retrieved November 1, 2014 (

Population Fund. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Raikhola, Pushkar Singh, and Yasuhiro Kuroki. 2009. “Aging and Elderly Care Practice in Japan: Main Issues, Policy and Program Perspective; What Lessons Can Be Learned from Japanese Experiences?” Dhaulagiri: Journal of Sociology & Anthropology 3:41–82.

Reuteman, Rob. 2010. Will Baby Boomers Bankrupt Social Security? Retrieved January 31, 2012 (

Rothbaum, F. 1983. “Aging and Age Stereotypes.” Social Cognition 2:171–84.

Shaw, Gina. “Hip and Knee Replacements on the Rise.” Web MD. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Sweetser, Dorian Apple. 1984. “Love and Work: Intergenerational Household Composition in the U. S. in 1900.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 46(2):289–293.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. “State and County Facts: USA Quick Facts.” US Census Bureau. Retrieved November 1, 2014 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011a. “Age and Sex Composition 2010.” 2010 Census Briefs, May. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011b. “The Older Population: 2010.” 2010 Census Briefs, November. Retrieved December 13, 2011 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011c. “Population.” The 2012 Statistical Abstract. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2018. “The Population 65 Years and Older.” (

Werner, Carrie. 2011. “The Older Population: 2010.” U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Wiencaw, Ruth. 2009. “Caring for the Elderly in America.” Research Starters. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

World Health Organization. 2012. “Definition of an Older or Elderly Person.” Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

Xuequan, Mu. 2011. “Premier Wen Join Nursing Home Seniors to Celebrate Mid-Autumn Festival.” Retrieved February 12, 2012 (

Yap, Mui Teng, Leng Leng Thang, and John W. Traphagan. 2005. “Introduction: Aging in Asia—Perennial Concerns on Support and Caring for the Old.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 20:257–267.

Zelenev, Sergei. 2008. “Regional Dimensions of the Ageing Situation.” The United Nations. Retrieved January 28, 2012 (

13.2 The Process of Aging

Administration on Aging. 2011. “A Profile of Older Americans 2010.” Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

AGS. 2021. “Geriatrics Workforce By The Numbers (Updated 2021). American Geriatrics Society. (

Bazzini, D.G., and W.D. Mclntosh. 1997. "The Aging Women in Popular Film: Underrepresented, Unattractive, Unfriendly, and Unintelligent." Sex Roles 36:531–43.

Bryant, Ed. 2004. “Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction.” Voice of the Diabetic 19(1). Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Clarfield, A. Mark. 1990. “Dr. Ignatz Nascher and the Birth of Geriatrics.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 143(9):944–945, 948.

Cole, Thomas R. 1993. The Journey of Life: a Cultural History of Aging in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crimmins, Eileen. 2004. “Trends in the Health of the Elderly.” Annual Review of Public Health 25:79–98.

Davidson, Kate. 2002. “Gender Differences in New Partnership Choices and Constraints for Older Widows and Widowers.” Ageing International 27: 43–60.

Drummond, Murray. 1998. “Sports, Aging Men, and Constructions of Masculinity.” Generations 32:32–35.

Erikson, Erik H. 1963 [1950]. Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

Fredriksen-Goldsen, K.I., H.J. Kim, C.A. Emlet, A. Muraco, E.A. Erosheva, C.P. Hoy-Ellis, J. Goldsen, and H. Petry. 2011. The Aging and Health Report: Disparities and Resilience among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults. Seattle, WA: Institute for Multigenerational Health. Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Grant, Jaime M. 2009. “Outing Age 2010: Public Policy Issues Affecting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Elders.” National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute. Washington, DC. Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Gravier, Elizabeth. 2021. “Experts say you should have 10 times your income saved to retire by age 67—here’s what to do if you aren’t yet there.” CNBC. (

Hagestad, Gunhild, and Peter Uhlenberg. 2006. “Should We Be Concerned about Age Segregation?” Research on Aging 28:638–653.

Harold and Maude. N.d. Retrieved February 1, 2012 (

Hillman, Jennifer. 2011. “A Call for an Integrated Biopsychosocial Model to Address Fundamental Disconnects in an Emergent Field: An Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Sexuality and Aging'.” Aging International 36:303–312.

Hospice Foundation of America. 2012a. “Welcome.” Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Hospice Foundation of America. 2012b. “What Is Hospice?” Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Jenkins D., C. Walker, H. Cohen, and L. Curry. 2010. “A Lesbian Older Adult Managing Identity Disclosure: A Case Study.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work 53:402–420.

Karantzas, Gery. 2018. “Mind the Gap: Does Age Difference in Relationships Matter.” The Conversation. (

Lindau, Stacy Tessler, M.D., L. Philip Schumm, Edward O. Laumann, Wendy Levinson, Colm A. O'Muircheartaigh, and Linda J. Waite. 2007. “A Study of Sexuality and Health among Older Adults in the United States.” New England Journal of Medicine 357:762–774.

Lloyd, Liz, Kate White, and Eileen Sutton. 2011. “Researching the End-of-Life in Old Age: Cultural, Ethical and Methodological Issues.” Aging &Society 31:386–407.

Marshall, B., and S. Katz. 2002. “Forever Functional: Sexual Fitness and the Aging Male Body.” Body and Society 8:43–70.

MetLife Mature Market Institute. 2010. “Still Out, Still Aging: The Met Life Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Baby Boomers.” Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

Munch, S. 2004. "Gender-Biased Diagnosing of Women's Medical Complaints: Contributions of Feminist Thought, 1970-1995." Women & Health 40:101–121.

Munnell, Alice. 2011. “What Is the Average Retirement Age?” Center for Retirement Research. Retrieved January 29, 2012 (

National Senior Citizens Law Center. 2011. “LGTB Older Adults in Long-Term Care Facilities: Stories from the Field.” Retrieved January 30, 2012 (

Nonacs, Ruta. 2018. “Female Sexual Dysfunction: New Treatments on the Way.” MGH Center for Women's Mental Health. (

Packer, Dominic and Alison Chasteen. 2006. “Looking Towards the Future: How Possible Aged Selves Influence Prejudice Towards Older Adults.” Social Cognition 24:218–247.

Parker, Marti and Thorslund Mats. 2007. “Health Trends in the Elderly Population: Getting Better and Getting Worse.” The Gerontologist 47:150–158.

Pleis, J.R., J.W. Lucas, and B.W. Wared. 2009. “Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2008.” Data from the National Health Survey, Series 10. No. 242.

Riley, Matilda White. 1978. “Aging, Social Change, and the Power of Ideas.” Daedalus 107:39–52.

Sharpe, P.A. 1995. “Older Women and Health Services: Moving from Ageism Toward Empowerment.” Women & Health 22:9–23.

Spector-Mersel, Gabriela. 2006. “Never-Aging Stories: Western Hegemonic Masculinity Scripts.” Journal of Gender Studies 15:67–82.

United Nations. 2020. “World Population Aging, 2019 Highlights.” United Nations. (

Whitbourne, Susan and Stacey Whitbourne. 2010. Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

13.3 Challenges Facing the Elderly

Acierno, R., Melba A. Hernandez, Ananda B. Amstadter, Heidi S. Resnick, Kenneth Steve, Wendy Muzzy, and Dean G. Kilpatrick. 2010. “Prevalence and Correlates of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, Financial Abuse and Potential Neglect in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health 100:292–7.

Administration on Aging. 2009. “Data Sources on the Impact of the 2008 Financial Crisis on the Economic Well-being of Older Americans Aging Forum Report Issue #1.” Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Brownell, Patricia. 2010. “Social Issues and Social Policy Response to Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults.” Pp. 1–16 in Aging, Ageism and Abuse: Moving from Awareness to Action, edited by G. Gutman and C. Spencer. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.

Glantz, Aaron. 2010. “Suicide Rates Soar among WWII Vets, Records Show.” The Bay Citizen, November 11. Retrieved February 27, 2012 (

Honor Flight Network. 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011 (

Kohn, Robert, and Wendy Verhoek-Oftedahl. 2011. “Caregiving and Elder Abuse.” Medicine & Health Rhode Island 94(2):47–49.

National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics. 2011. “VA Benefits and Health Care Utilization.” November 9. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

National Center of Elder Abuse. 2011. “Major Types of Elder Abuse.” Retrieved January 21, 2012 (

Stuart, Spencer. 2008. “Leading CEOs: A Statistical Snapshot of S&P 500 Leaders.” Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Urban Institute and Kaiser Commission. 2010. “Poverty Rate by Age.” Retrieved January 21, 2012 (").

U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. “Webinar on 2008 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Estimates from the Current Population Survey.” Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs. 2010. “Veteran Population Projections FY 2000 to FY2036.” December. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

13.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging

Abner, Carrie. 2006. “Graying Prisons: States Face Challenges of an Aging Inmate Population.” State News, November/December.

Atchley, R.C. 1971. "Retirement and Leisure Participation: Continuity or Crisis?" The Gerontologist 11:13–17.

Atchley, R.C. 1989. "A Continuity Theory of Normal Aging." The Gerontologist 29:183–190.

Baltes, Paul, and Margret Baltes, eds. 1990. Successful Aging: Perspectives from The Behavioral Sciences. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Cowgill, D.O. and L.D. Holmes, eds. 1972. Aging and Modernization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Crosnoe, Robert, and Glen H. Elder. 2002. “Life Course Transitions, the Generational Stake, and Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships.” Journal of Marriage and Family 64(4):1089–1096.

Cumming, Elaine, and William Earl Henry. 1961. Growing Old. New York: Basic.

Dowd, James J. 1975. "Aging as Exchange: A Preface to Theory." Journal of Gerontology 30:584–594.

Havinghurst, R.J. 1961. "Successful Aging." The Gerontologist 1:8–13.

Havinghurst, Robert, Bernice Neugarten, and Sheldon Tobin. 1968. “Patterns of Aging.” Pp. 161–172 in Middle Age and Aging, edited by B. Neugarten. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Hothschild, Arlie. 1975. “Disengagement Theory: A Critique and Proposal.” American Sociological Review 40:563–569.

Human Rights Watch. 2012. Old Behind Bars: The Aging Prison Population in the United States. Retrieved February 2, 2012 (

Leadership Conference. N.d. “Chapter Three: Race, Sentencing and the “Tough Crime” Movement.” Retrieved February 2, 2012 (

Lemon, B., V. Bengtson, and J. Petersen. 1972. “An Exploration of the Activity Theory of Aging: Activity Types and Life Expectation among In-Movers to a Retirement Community.” Journal of Gerontology 27:511–23.

Li, Wiehua and Lewis, Nicole. 2020. “This Chart Shows Why the Prison Population Is So Vulnerable to COVID-19.” The Marshall Project. (

Reese, Hope. 2019. “What Should We Do About Our Aging Prison Population?” JSTOR Daily. (

Riley, Matilda While, Marilyn Johnson, and Anne Foner. 1972. Aging and Society. Volume III, A Sociology of Age Stratification. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Rose, Arnold. 1960. “The Subculture of the Aging: A Topic for Sociological Research.” The Gerontologist 2:123–127.

Tornstam Lars. 2005. Gerotranscendence: A Developmental Theory of Positive Aging. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Statistical Abstract 2011: Table 147. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 2012. “The Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1967 (ADEA).” Retrieved January 30, 2012 (

Warren, Jenifer. 2002. “The Graying of the Prisons.” Los Angeles Times, June 9. Retrieved February 2, 2012 (

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