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International Olympic Committee, Medical and Scientific Department. 2012. “IOC Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism.” Retrieved December 8, 2014 (

Maugh, Thomas H., III. 2009. “Row Over South African Athlete Highlights Ambiguities of Gender.” Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 8, 2014 (

12.1 Sex, Gender, Identity, and Expression

American Heart Association. 2020. "Discrimination contributes to poorer heart health for LGBTQ adults." October 8 2020. (

American Psychological Association (APA). 2008. “Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality.” Washington, DC. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Asexual Visibility and Education Network. 2021. "The Gray Area." Retrieved April 12, 2021. (

Behrens, K.G. 2020. "A principled ethical approach to intersex paediatric surgeries. BMC Med Ethics 21, 108.

Block, Melissa. 2020. "Pathmarking the Way: Ruth Bader Ginsburg's Lifelong Fight for Gender Equality." National Public Radio. September 24 2020. (

Boyer, S. J., and Lorenz, T. K. 2020. "The impact of heteronormative ideals imposition on sexual orientation questioning distress." Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 7(1), 91–100.

Bygren, Magnus and Erlandsson, Anni and Gähler, Michael. 2017. "Do Employers Prefer Fathers? Evidence from a Field Experiment Testing the Gender by Parenthood Interaction Effect on Callbacks to Job Applications." European Sociological Review, Volume 33, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages 337–348,

Caldera, Yvonne, Aletha Huston, and Marion O’Brien. 1998. “Social Interactions and Play Patterns of Parents and Toddlers with Feminine, Masculine, and Neutral Toys.” Child Development 60(1):70–76.

Calzo JP, and Blashill AJ. 2018. "Child Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Cohort Study." JAMA Pediatr. 2018;172(11):1090–1092. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2496

Canadian Public Health Association. 2019. "Language Matters: Using respectful language in relation to sexual health, substance use, STBBIs and intersecting sources of stigma." Retrieved April 15 2021. (

Case, M.A. 1995. "Disaggregating Gender from Sex and Sexual Orientation: The Effeminate Man in the Law and Feminist Jurisprudence." Yale Law Journal 105(1):1–105.

Drescher, J. 2010. “Queer diagnoses: Parallels and contrasts in the history of homosexuality, gender variance, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Archives of Sexual Behavior.” 39: 427–460.

Freedom to Marry, Inc. 2014. "History and Timeline of the Freedom to Marry in the United States | Freedom to Marry.” Retrieved November 11, 2014 (

FBI. 2020. "2019 Hate Crime Statistics." Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Report. November 16 2020. (

Flores, Andrew R. and Herman Jody L. and Gates, Gary J. and Taylor, N.T. Brown. "How Many Adults Identify As Transgender In The United States?" The Williams Institute. June 2016. (

Foglia, M. B., & Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. 2014. "Health Disparities among LGBT Older Adults and the Role of Nonconscious Bias." The Hastings Center report, 44 Suppl 4(0 4), S40–S44.

Gender-Inclusive Biology. "Language Guide." Retrieved April 15 2021 (

Gerdeman, Dina. 2019. "How Gender Stereotypes Can Kill a Woman's Self-Confidence." Harvard Business School. Working Knowledge. February 25 2019. (

Giovanniello, Sarah. 2013. "NCAVP Report: 2012 Hate Violence Disproportionately Target Transgender Women of Color." GLAAD. N.p., Retrieved October 10, 2014 (

GLAAD. 2021. "Tips for Allies of Transgender People." Retrieved April 12, 2021. (

González, M José and Clara Cortina and Jorge Rodríguez. 2019. "The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Hiring: A Field Experiment." European Sociological Review, Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages 187–204,

Herek, G. M. 1990. “The Context of Anti-Gay Violence: Notes on Cultural and Psychological Heterosexism." Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 5: 316–333.

Human Rights Watch. 2020. "Anti-LGBT Persecution in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras." Human Rights Watch. October 7 2020. (

ILGA World: Lucas Ramon Mendos, Kellyn Botha, Rafael Carrano Lelis, Enrique López de la Peña, Ilia Savelev and Daron Tan, State-Sponsored Homophobia 2020: Global Legislation Overview Update Geneva: ILGA, December 2020.

interACT. 2021. "FAQ: What Is Intersex." InterACT Advocates for Intersex Youth. January 26, 2021. (

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang. 1997. Two Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

J.E.B. v. Alabama, 144 S. Ct. 1436 (1994).

Johns MM, Lowry R, Andrzejewski J, et al. 2019. "Transgender Identity and Experiences of Violence Victimization, Substance Use, Suicide Risk, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among High School Students — 19 States and Large Urban School Districts, 2017." MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:67 71.DOI: icon.

Kinsey, Alfred C. et al. 1998 [1948]. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Koyama, Emi. n.d. "Adding the "I": Does Intersex Belong in the LGBT Movement?" Intersex Iniiative. Retrieved April 15, 2021. (

Mayo Clinic. 2021. "Children and gender identity: Supporting your child." Mayo Clinic Staff. January 16 2021. (

Mills-Koonce, W. R. and Rehder, P. D. and McCurdy, A. L. 2018. "The Significance of Parenting and Parent-Child Relationships for Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents." Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 28(3), 637–649.

Moi, T. 2005. Sex, Gender and the Body. New York: Oxford University Press.

National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. 2010. “Hate Violence Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and HIV-Affected Communities in the United States.” Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

Ogden, Lesley Evans. 2019. "Working Mothers Face a 'Wall' of Bias, But There Are Ways to Push Back." Science Magazine. April 10 2019. (

PFLAG. 2021. "PFLAG National Glossary of Terms." Retrieved April 12 2021. (

Poasa, Kris. 1992. “The Samoan Fa’afafine: One Case Study and Discussion of Transsexualism.” Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 5(3):39–51.

Ryle, Robyn. 2011. Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Sears, Brad and Christy Mallory. 2011. "Documented Evidence of Employment Discrimination & Its Effects on LGBT People." Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute. Retrieved December 12, 2014 (

Sedgwick, Eve. 1985. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press.

Supreme Court of the United States. 2020. "Syllabus: BOSTOCK v. CLAYTON COUNTY, GEORGIA." June 15, 2020. (

Tompkins, Chris. 2017. "Why Heteronormativity Is Harmful." Learning for Justice. July 18, 2017. (

TSER. 2021. "Definitions." Trans Student Educational Resources. Retrieved April 15 2021. (

UC Davis LGBTQIA Resource Center. 2020. "LGBTQIA Resource Center Glossary." January 14 2020. (

UCSF Transgender Care. 2019. "Transition Roadmap." University of California San Francisco Transgender Care. Retrieved April 15 2021 (

Widmer, Eric D., Judith Treas, and Robert Newcomb. 1998. “Attitudes Toward Nonmarital Sex in 24 Countries.” Journal of Sex Research 35(4):349.

Zaliznyak, M., Bresee, C., & Garcia, M. M. 2020. "Age at First Experience of Gender Dysphoria Among Transgender Adults Seeking Gender-Affirming Surgery." JAMA network open, 3(3), e201236.

12.2 Gender and Gender Inequality

Box Office Mojo. n.d. "Domestic Grosses by MPAA Rating." Retrieved December 29, 2014 (

Campbell, Patricia, and Jennifer Storo. 1994. "Girls Are … Boys Are … : Myths, Stereotypes & Gender Differences.” Office of Educational Research and Improvement U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Coltrane, Scott, and Michele Adams. 2008. Gender and Families Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Cooley, Charles Horton. 1902. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner’s.

Correll, S. J., Benard, S., & Paik, I. 2007. “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?” 1. American journal of sociology, 112(5), 1297-1339.

Davis, Donald M. 1993. “TV Is a Blonde, Blonde World.” American Demographics, Special Issue: Women Change Places 15(5):34–41.

Emmerich, Stuart. 2020. “‘Unbought and Unbossed’: How Shirley Chisholm Helped Paved the Path for Kamala Harris Nearly Five Decades Ago.” Vogue. August 20 2020. (

Etaugh, Clair, and Judith Bridges. 2004. Women’s Lives: a Topical Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Farrington, K., and W. Chertok. 1993. “Social Conflict Theories of the Family.” Pp. 357–381 in Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach, edited by P.G. Boss, W.J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W.R. Schumm and S.K. Steinmetz. New York: Plenum.

Gay, Roxane. 2018. “Fifty Years Ago, Protesters Took on the Miss America Pageant and Electrified the Feminist Movement” Smithsonian Magazine. January/February 2018. (

Hardwick, Courtney. 2014. “10 of the Highest Paid Child Stars.” The Retrieved December 29, 2014 (

Hawke, Lucy A. 2008. “Gender Roles Within American Marriage: Are They Really Changing?” ESSAI 5:70-74. Retrieved February 22, 2012 (

Hochschild, Arlie R., and Anne Machung. 1989. The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. New York: Viking.

Imbornoni, Ann-Marie. 2009. “Women’s Rights Movement in the United States.” Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

Kane, Eileen. 1996. “Gender, Culture, and Learning.” Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development.

Kilbourne, Jean. 2000. Can’t Buy Me Love: How Advertising Changed the Way We Think and Feel. New York: Touchstone Publishing.

Kimmel, Michael. 2000. The Gendered Society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Lips, Hillary M. 2004. “The Gender Gap in Possible Selves: Divergence of Academic Self-Views among High School and University Students. Sex Roles 50(5/6):357–371.

Manning, Jennifer E. 2018. “Membership of the 115th Congress: A Profile.” Congressional Research Service. December 20 2018. (

Mead, George Herbert. 1967 [1934]. Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Murdock, George Peter, and Douglas R. White. 1969. “Standard Cross-Cultural Sample.” Ethnology 9:329–369.

Murrell, Audrey J., and Stacy Blake-Beard, eds. Mentoring Diverse Leaders: Creating Change for People, Processes, and Paradigms. New York: Routledge, 2017.

National Institute of Mental Health. 1999. Unpublished Epidemiological Catchment Area Analyses.

Newcomb, Alyssa. 2020. “A Record Number of Women Took Over Fortune 500 Companies in 2020.” NBC News. December 30 2020. (

Oxford American Dictionary. 2010. 3rd ed. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Pincus, Fred. 2000. “Discrimination Comes in Many Forms: Individual, Institutional, and Structural.” Pp. 31-35 in Readings for Diversity and Social Justice. New York, NY: Routledge.

Pogrebin, Abigail. 2011. “How Do You Spell Ms.” New York Magazine. October 28 2011. (

Raffaelli, Marcela, and Lenna L. Ontai. 2004. “Gender Socialization in Latino/a Families: Results from Two Retrospective Studies.” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50(5/6):287–299.

Ready, Diane. 2001. “‘Spice Girls,’ ‘Nice Girls,’ ‘Girlies,’ and ‘Tomboys’: Gender Discourses, Girls’ Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom.” Gender and Education 13(2):153-167.

Reiners, Bailey. 2019. “What Is The Glass Ceiling and How Do We Break It.” Built In. September 30 2019. (

Risman, Barbara, and Danette Johnson-Sumerford. 1998. “Doing It Fairly: A Study of Postgender Marriages.” Journal of Marriage and Family (60)1:23–40.

Sadker, David, and Myra Sadker. 1994. Failing at Fairness: How Our Schools Cheat Girls. Toronto, ON: Simon & Schuster.

Sanday, Peggy Reeves. 2004. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Seem, Susan Rachael, and Diane M. Clark. 2006. "Healthy Women, Healthy Men, and Healthy Adults: An Evaluation of Gender Role Stereotypes in the Twenty-first Century.” Sex Roles 55(3-4):247–258.

Smith, Stacy. 2008. “Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV.” Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media. Retrieved on January 10, 2012 (

Staples, Robert, and Leanor Boulin Johnson. 2004. Black Families at the Crossroads: Challenges and Prospects. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

Thorne, Barrie. 1993. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

UNICEF. 2007. “Early Gender Socialization.” August 29. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009.” Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. “American Time Use Survey Summary.” June 22. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

West, Candace, and Don Zimmerman. 1987. “Doing Gender.” Gender and Society 1(2):125–151.

12.3 Sexuality

American Psychological Association (APA). 2008. “Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality.” Washington, DC. Retrieved January 10, 2012 (

Broude, Gwen J. 2003. “Sexual Attitudes and Practices.” Pp. 177–184 in Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures Volume 1. New York, NY: Springer.

Buss, David M. 1989. “Sex Differences in Human Mate Preferences: Evolutionary Hypothesis Tested in 37 Cultures.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12(1):1–49.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health.” January 25. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Chamie, Joseph. 2018. “Premarital Sex Increasing Worldwide.” Inter Press Service. April 5 2018. (

Columbia Public Health. 2017. a. “Abstinence-Only Education Is a Failure.” Columbia University Mailman School of Health. August 22 2017. (

Columbia Public Health. 2017. b. “Study Finds Girls Unprepared for Puberty.” Columbia University Mailman School of Health. January 5 2017. (

Cooley, Charles Horton. 1902. Human Nature and the Social Order. New York: Scribner.

Davis, Carolyn J. and Cox, Daniel and Griffin, Rob and Jones, Robert P. 2018. “Young People Set To Impact Debate on Public Health.” PRRI. April 17 2018. (

Dutch News. 2017. “The Netherlands has the lowest rate of teenage mothers in the EU.” Dutch News. December 11 2017. (

Fisher, T.D., Z.T. Moore, and M. Pittenger. 2011. “Sex on the Brain?: An Examination of Frequency of Sexual Cognitions as a Function of Gender, Erotophilia, and Social Desirability.” The Journal of Sex Research 49(1):69–77.

Grose, Thomas K. 2007. “Straight Facts About the Birds and Bees.” US News and World Report, March 18. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Hall, Donald. 2003. Queer Theories. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Jagose, Annamarie. 1996. Queer Theory: An Introduction. New York: New York University Press.

Janfanza, Rachel. 2020. “The Nuanced Push for American Sex Education.” Harvard Political Review. January 24 2020. (

Milhausen, Robin, and Edward Herold. 1999. “Does the Sexuality Double Standard Still Exist? Perceptions of University Women.” Journal of Sex Research 36(4):361–368.

National Public Radio (NPR). 2004. NPR/Kaiser/Kennedy School Poll: Sex Education in America. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

National Survey of Family Growth. 2013. "Key Statistics From the National Survey for Family Growth." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 13, 2014 (").

National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. 2010. “Findings from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, Centre for Sexual Health Promotion, Indiana University.” Journal of Sexual Medicine 7(s5):243–373.

NBC News/People. 2005. National Survey of Young Teens’ Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors. January 27.

Parsons, Talcott, Robert F. Bales, James Olds, Morris Zelditsch, and Philip E. Slater. 1955. Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process. New York: Free Press.

Pedersen, W.C., L.C. Miller, A. Putcha-Bhagavatula, and Y. Yang. 2002. “Evolved Sex Differences in the Number of Partners Desired? The Long and the Short of It.” Psychological Science 13(2):157–161.

Potard, C., R. Courtoisand, and E. Rusch. 2008. “The Influence of Peers on Risky Sexual Behavior During Adolescence.” European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care 13(3):264–270.

Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. 1990. Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Solmonese, Joe. 2008. “Gay Marriage Makes Financial Sense.” BusinessWeek. Retrieved February 22, 2012 (

Transgender Law & Policy Institute. 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Turner, William B. 2000. A Genealogy of Queer Theory. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

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