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CNN Library. (February 17, 2021). "Trayvon Martin Shooting Fast Facts." CNN US. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Davis, Guy. (June 1, 2020). “George Floyd protests go international as demonstrations break out across the world.” ABC News. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups

Caver, Helen Bush, and Mary T. Williams. 2011. “Creoles.” Multicultural America, Countries and Their Cultures, December 7. Retrieved February 13, 2012 (

Dickens, William T. and Flynn, James R. 2006. "Black Americans Reduce the Racial IQ Gap." Psychological Science. Volume 17 Number 10. (

Dollard, J., et al. 1939. Frustration and Aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Graves, Joseph. 2003. The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

MacCord, Kate. 2014. "Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)." Embryo Project Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Martinez, Daniel E. and Gonzalez, Kelsey E. 2019. "Panethnicity as a reactive identity: primary panethnic identification among Latino-Hispanics in the United States." Ethnic and Racial Studies. Volume 44 2021. (

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. Racial Formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1990s (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Park, Jerry Z. 2008. "Second-Generation Asian American Pan-Ethnic Identity: Pluralized Meanings of a Racial Label." Sociological Perspectives. Volume 51, Issue 3. DOI: 10.1525/sop.2008.51.3.541

Rao, Sameer. 2018. "Can East Asian Americans Reclaim 'Yellow' for Themselves." Color Lines. September 28 2018. (

Seipel, Brooke. 2020 "Why the AP and Others Are Now Capitalizing the 'B' in Black" The Hill. June 19 2020. (

Wagley, Charles, and Marvin Harris. 1958. Minorities in the New World: Six Case Studies. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wirth, Louis. 1945. “The Problem of Minority Groups.” The Science of Man in the World Crisis, edited by R. Linton: 347. In Hacker, Helen Mayer. 1951. Women as a Minority Group. Retrieved December 1, 2011 (

World Health Organization. 2011. “Elder Maltreatment.” Fact Sheet N-357. Retrieved December 19, 2011 (

11.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity

Collins, Patricia Hill. 2008. Distinguishing Features of Black Feminist Thought. London: Routledge.

Durkheim, Émile. 1982 [1895]. The Rules of the Sociological Method. Translated by W.D. Halls. New York: Free Press.

Nash, Manning. 1964. “Race and the Ideology of Race.” Current Anthropology 3(3): 285–288.

Rose, Arnold. 1958 [1951]. The Roots of Prejudice, fifth edition. Paris, France: Unesco. Retrieved November 19 (

11.3 Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism

Blaut, James M. 1992. "The theory of cultural racism." Antipode. 24(4): 289-299.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2015. The structure of racism in color-blind, “post-racial” America. American Behavioral Scientist. 59:1358-76.

Bouie, Jamelle. (August 19, 2014). "Why the Fires in Ferguson Won't End Soon." Retrieved October 9, 2014 (

Carter, Jordan, and Ian Snyder. (July 21, 2020). “What Does It Mean to Be an Anti-racist?” National League of Cities (NLC). Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Feist, Benjamin, Teresa Nelson, and Ian Bratlie. 2013. "Racial Profiling in Greater Minnesota and the Case for Expanding the Driver's License Privilege to All Minnesota Residents." Law Raza. 5(1): 3.

Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E., and Stacey N. Doan. 2010. “The social costs of academic success across ethnic groups.” Child development. 81(6): 1696-1713.

Herring, C., V. M. Keith, and H.D. Horton. 2004. Skin Deep: How Race and Complexion Matter in the “Color-Blind” Era (Ed.), Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Hudson, David L. 2009. “Students Lose Confederate-Flag Purse Case in 5th Circuit.” Retrieved December 7, 2011 (

Kendi, Ibram X. 2019. How to be an antiracist. One world.

Klonoff, E., and H. Landrine. 2000. “Is Skin Color a Marker for Racial Discrimination? Explaining the Skin Color-Hypertension Relationship.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 23: 329–338.

Landor, Antoinette M., Leslie Gordon Simons, Ronald L. Simons, Gene H. Brody, Chalandra M. Bryant, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ellen M. Granberg, and Janet N. Melby. 2013. "Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes." Journal of Family Psychology. 27 (5): 817-826.

Lowery, Wesley and Darryl Fears. (August 31, 2014). "Michael Brown and Dorian Johnson, the friend who witnessed his shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 9 , 2014. (

McIntosh, Peggy. 1988. “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.” White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley College Center for Research on Women.

Melaku, Tsedele and Beeman, Angie and Smith, David G. and Johnson, Brad W. 2020. "Be A Better Ally."

Missouri Attorney General’s Office. (n.d.) "Racial Profiling Report." Retrieved October 9, 2014 (

Osta, Kathleen, and Hugh Vasquez. 2021. “Implicit Bias and Structural Racialization”. National Equity Project. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Race Forward. 2021. “What Is Systemic Racism?” Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Nobles, Frances, and Julie Bosman. (August 17, 2014). "Autopsy Shows Michael Brown Was Struck at Least Six Times." The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2014 (

Wilson, William Julius. 2012. The Truly Disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. University of Chicago Press.

Wilson, William Julius. 2012. The Truly Disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. University of Chicago Press.

Yerevanci. 2013. "Public Opinion of Interracial Marriage in the United States." Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved December 23, 2014 (

11.4 Intergroup Relationships

Asi, Maryam, and Daniel Beaulieu. 2013. “Arab Households in the United States: 2006–2010.” U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 19, 2014 (

Lewy, Guenter. 2004. “Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?” Retrieved December 6, 2011 (

Norris, Tina, Paula L. Vines, and Elizabeth M. Hoeffel. 2012. “The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010.” U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 19, 2014 (

Population Studies Center. 2010. “New Racial Segregation Measures for States and Large Metropolitan Areas: Analysis of the 2005–2009 American Community Survey.” Population Studies Center: Institute for Social Research. Retrieved November 29, 2011 (

Tatz, Colin. 2006. "Confronting Australian Genocide." The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Edited by Roger Maaka and Chris Andersen. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars Press.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2014. “State and County Quickfacts.” Retrieved November 19, 2014 (

11.5 Race and Ethnicity in the United States

Abdollah, Tami and Trevor Hughes. (February 27, 2021). “Hate crimes against Asian Americans are on the rise. Here's what activists, lawmakers and police are doing to stop the violence.” USA TODAY. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

ACLU. 2011. “Appellate Court Upholds Decision Blocking Arizona’s Extreme Racial Profiling Law.” American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved December 8, 2011 (

American Indian Cultural Support. 2005. “Mascots: Racism in Schools by State.” Retrieved December 8, 2011 ( (

Frimpong, Kwadwo. (November 12, 2020). “Black people are still seeking racial justice – why and what to do about it.” The Brookings Institution. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Georgetown Law Library. 2021. “DACA and the DREAM Act.” Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Greely, Andrew M. 1972. That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Harb, Ali. (January 27, 2018). "US Census fails to add MENA category: Arabs to remain “White” in count." Middle East Eye. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Lewy, Guenter. 2004. "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?" Retrieved December 6, 2011 (

Lipka, Michael. 2016. "A Closer Look At Jewish Identity in Israel and the U.S." Pew Research Center. March 16 2016. (

Marger, Martin. 2003. Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Massey, Douglas S. 2006. “Seeing Mexican Immigration Clearly.” Cato Unbound. Retrieved December 4, 2011 (

Myers, John P. 2007. Dominant-Minority Relations in America. Boston: Pearson.

National Congress of American Indians. 2005. “The National Congress of American Indians Resolution #TUL-05-087: Support for NCAA Ban on ‘Indian’ Mascots.” Retrieved December 8, 2011 (

National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). 2020. “Tribal Nations and the United States: An Introduction.” Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Office of Management and Budget. 2016. "Standards for maintaining, collecting, and presenting federal data on race and ethnicity." Federal Register. 81(190): 67398-58790. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Senate Bill 1070. 2010. State of Arizona. Retrieved December 8, 2011 (

Shapiro, Emily and Whitney Lloyd. (March 12, 2021). “$27 million settlement for George Floyd's family approved by Minneapolis City Council.” ABC News. Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

Tatz, Colin. 2006. "Confronting Australian Genocide." Pp. 125-140 in The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives. Edited by Roger Maaka and Chris Andersen. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. “State and County Quickfacts.” Retrieved February 22, 2012 (

U.S. Census Bureau. (July 1, 2019). “Quick Facts.” Retrieved March 18, 2021 (

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2010. “Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status by Region and Selected Country of Last Residence: Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010.” Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Retrieved December 6, 2011 (

Vigdor, Jacob L. 2008. “Measuring Immigrant Assimilation in the United States.” Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Civic Report 53. Retrieved December 4, 2011 (

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