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Butler, Sarah. 2013. “Bangladeshi Factory Deaths Spark Action among High-Street Clothing Chains.” The Guardian. Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights. 2014. "Rana Plaza: A Look Back and Forward." Global Labour Rights. Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

International Labour Organization, Department of Communication. 2014. "Post Rana Plaza: A Vision for the Future." Working Conditions: International Labour Organization. Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

Korzeniewicz, Robert, and Timothy Patrick Moran. 2009. Unveiling Inequality: A World Historical Perspective. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

10.1 Global Stratification and Classification

Amnesty International. 2012. “Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.” Retrieved January 3, 2012 (

Castells, Manuel. 1998. End of Millennium. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Central Intelligence Agency. 2012. “The World Factbook.” Retrieved January 5, 2012 (

Central Intelligence Agency. 2014. “Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

Dogruel, Fatma, and A. Suut Dogruel. 2007. “Foreign Debt Dynamics in Middle Income Countries.” Paper presented January 4, 2007 at Middle East Economic Association Meeting, Allied Social Science Associations, Chicago, IL.

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2005. “The Feminization of Poverty and Women’s Human Rights.” Gender Equality and Development Section UNESCO, July. Paris, France.

Myrdal, Gunnar. 1970. The Challenge of World Poverty: A World Anti-Poverty Program in Outline. New York: Pantheon.

Oxfam. 2014. “Working for the Few: Political Capture and Economic Inequality.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

United Nations. 2013. "Millennium Development Goals." Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1979. The Capitalist World Economy. Cambridge, England: Cambridge World Press.

World Bank. 2014a. “Gender Overview.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

World Bank. 2014b. “High Income: OECD: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

World Bank. 2014c. “Low Income: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

World Bank. 2014d. “Upper Middle Income: Data.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

World Bank. 2020. "Understanding Poverty: Poverty Overview." Retrieved April 3 2021. (

World Bank. 2021. "World Bank Country and Lending Groups." Retrieved April 3 2021. (

10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty

Aizenman, Nurith. 2016. "You Asked, We Answer: Can Microloans Lift Women Out of Poverty?" NPR. November 1 2016. (

Anti-Slavery International. 2012. “What Is Modern Slavery?” Retrieved January 1, 2012 (

Barta, Patrick. 2009. “The Rise of the Underground.” Wall Street Journal, March 14. Retrieved January 1, 2012 (

Buvinić, M. 1997. “Women in Poverty: A New Global Underclass.” Foreign Policy, Fall (108):1–7.

Chan, Emily. "Why Do We Still Know So Little About How Our Clothes Are Made?" Vogue. December 18 2019. (

Chen, Martha. 2001. “Women in the Informal Sector: A Global Picture, the Global Movement.” The SAIS Review 21:71–82

Chronicle of Higher Education. 2006. “Nearly Nude Penn State Students Protest Sweatshop Labor.” March 26. Retrieved January 4, 2012 (

Fajnzylber, Pablo, Daniel Lederman, and Norman Loayza. 2002. “Inequality and Violent Crime.” Journal of Law and Economics 45:1–40.

International Labour Organization. 2012. “High Unemployment and Growing Inequality Fuel Social Unrest around the World.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

Karim, Naimul. 2020. "Fashion brands accused of exploiting workers at risk of layoffs." Thomson Reuters Foundation News. October 16 2020. (

Neckerman, Kathryn, and Florencia Torche. 2007. “Inequality: Causes and Consequences.” Annual Review of Sociology 33:335–357.

Niner, Sara. 2018. "Why microfinance as aid isn't enugh to empower women." The Conversation. May 23, 2018. (

OECD. 2012. "Gender equality in education, employment and entrepreneurship." Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris: 1–252.

Schoch, Marta and Lakner, Christopher and Freije-Rodrigues, Samuel. 2020. " Monitoring poverty at the US$3.20 and US$5.50 lines: differences and similarities with extreme poverty trends." World Bank Blogs. November 19 2020. (

Scott, Lucy. 2012. "Female Empowerment and Extreme Poverty Reduction." United Nations University. June 6 2012. (

Shah, Anup. 2011. “Poverty around the World.” Global Issues. Retrieved January 17, 2012 (

U.S. Department of State. 2011a. “Background Note: Argentina.” Retrieved January 3, 2012 (

U.S. Department of State. 2011b. “Background Note: China.” Retrieved January 3, 2012 (

U.S. Department of State. 2011c. “Background Note: Rwanda.” Retrieved January 3, 2012 (

USAS. 2021. “What is USAS.” August. Retrieved April 3, 2021 (

World Bank. 2013. “Middle East and North Africa." Retrieved November 7, 2014 (,,menuPK:247619~pagePK:146748~piPK:146812~theSitePK:256299,00.html).

World Bank. 2014e. “Poverty Overview.” Retrieved November 7, 2014 (

World Poverty. 2012a. “Poverty in Africa, Famine and Disease.” Retrieved January 2, 2012 (

World Poverty. 2012b “Poverty in Asia, Caste and Progress.” Retrieved January 2, 2012 (

World Poverty. 2012c. “Poverty in Latin America, Foreign Aid Debt Burdens.” Retrieved January 2, 2012 (

World Bank. 2018 "Gender difference in poverty and household composition through the life- cycle: a global perspective." Policy research working paper: 8360

10.3 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification

Armer, J. Michael, and John Katsillis. 2010. “Modernization Theory.” Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by E. F. Borgatta. Retrieved January 5, 2012 (

Caniels, Marjolein, C.J. Roeleveld, and Adriaan Roeleveld. 2009. “Power and Dependence Perspectives on Outsourcing Decisions.” European Management Journal 27:402–417. Retrieved January 4, 2012 (

Chang, Leslie T. 2008. Factory Girls: From Village to City in Changing China. New York: Random House.

Hendricks, John. 2010. “Dependency Theory.” Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by E.F. Borgatta. Retrieved January 5, 2012 (

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