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Introduction to Sociology 2e

Key Terms

Introduction to Sociology 2eKey Terms

a collection of people who exist in the same place at the same time, but who don’t interact or share a sense of identity
authoritarian leader
a leader who issues orders and assigns tasks
formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.
people who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way
clear division of labor
the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform
coercive organizations
organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital
the extent to which an individual complies with group or societal norms
democratic leader
a leader who encourages group participation and consensus-building before moving into action
a two-member group
explicit rules
the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized
expressive function
a group function that serves an emotional need
expressive leader
a leader who is concerned with process and with ensuring everyone’s emotional wellbeing
formal organizations
large, impersonal organizations
any collection of at least two people who interact with some frequency and who share some sense of aligned identity
hierarchy of authority
a clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy
the removal of personal feelings from a professional situation
a group a person belongs to and feels is an integral part of his identity
instrumental function
being oriented toward a task or goal
instrumental leader
a leader who is goal oriented with a primary focus on accomplishing tasks
Iron Rule of Oligarchy
the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration
laissez-faire leader
a hands-off leader who allows members of the group to make their own decisions
leadership function
the main focus or goal of a leader
leadership style
the style a leader uses to achieve goals or elicit action from group members
McDonaldization of Society
the increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions
a bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit—proven and documented skills
normative or voluntary organizations
organizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible rewards
a group that an individual is not a member of, and may even compete with
primary groups
small, informal groups of people who are closest to us
reference groups
groups to which an individual compares herself
secondary groups
larger and more impersonal groups that are task-focused and time limited
total institution
an organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs
a three-member group
utilitarian organizations
organizations that are joined to fill a specific material need
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