5.1 Theories of Self-Development
Socialization, as a sociological term, describes:
- how people interact during social situations
- how people learn societal norms, beliefs, and values
- a person’s internal mental state when in a group setting
- the difference between introverts and extroverts
The Harlows’ study on rhesus monkeys showed that:
- rhesus monkeys raised by other primate species are poorly socialized
- monkeys can be adequately socialized by imitating humans
- food is more important than social comfort
- social comfort is more important than food
What occurs in Lawrence Kohlberg’s conventional level?
- Children develop the ability to have abstract thoughts.
- Morality is developed by pain and pleasure.
- Children begin to consider what society considers moral and immoral.
- Parental beliefs have no influence on children’s morality.
What did Carol Gilligan believe earlier researchers into morality had overlooked?
- The justice perspective
- Sympathetic reactions to moral situations
- The perspective of females
- How social environment affects how morality develops
What is one way to distinguish between psychology and sociology?
- Psychology focuses on the mind, while sociology focuses on society.
- Psychologists are interested in mental health, while sociologists are interested in societal functions.
- Psychologists look inward to understand behavior while sociologists look outward.
- All of the above
How did nearly complete isolation as a child affect Danielle’s verbal abilities?
- She could not communicate at all.
- She never learned words, but she did learn signs.
- She could not understand much, but she could use gestures.
- She could understand and use basic language like “yes” and “no.”
5.2 Why Socialization Matters
Why do sociologists need to be careful when drawing conclusions from twin studies?
- The results do not apply to singletons.
- The twins were often raised in different ways.
- The twins may turn out to actually be fraternal.
- The sample sizes are often small.
From a sociological perspective, which factor does not greatly influence a person’s socialization?
- Blood type
Chris Langan’s story illustrates that:
- children raised in one-parent households tend to have higher IQs.
- intelligence is more important than socialization.
- socialization can be more important than intelligence.
- neither socialization nor intelligence affects college admissions.
5.3 Agents of Socialization
Why are wealthy parents more likely than poor parents to socialize their children toward creativity and problem solving?
- Wealthy parents are socializing their children toward the skills of white-collar employment.
- Wealthy parents are not concerned about their children rebelling against their rules.
- Wealthy parents never engage in repetitive tasks.
- Wealthy parents are more concerned with money than with a good education.
How do schools prepare children to one day enter the workforce?
- With a standardized curriculum
- Through the hidden curriculum
- By socializing them in teamwork
- All of the above
Which one of the following is not a way people are socialized by religion?
- People learn the material culture of their religion.
- Life stages and roles are connected to religious celebration.
- An individual’s personal internal experience of a divine being leads to their faith.
- Places of worship provide a space for shared group experiences.
Which of the following is a manifest function of schools?
- Understanding when to speak up and when to be silent
- Learning to read and write
- Following a schedule
- Knowing locker room etiquette
Which of the following is typically the earliest agent of socialization?
- Mass media
5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
Which of the following is not an age-related transition point when Americans must be socialized to new roles?
- School age
- Senior citizen
Which of the following is true regarding U.S. socialization of recent high school graduates?
- They are expected to take a year “off” before college.
- They are required to serve in the military for one year.
- They are expected to enter college, trade school, or the workforce shortly after graduation.
- They are required to move away from their parents.