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Introduction to Sociology 2e

Key Terms

Introduction to Sociology 2eKey Terms

tenets or convictions that people hold to be true
groups that reject and oppose society’s widely accepted cultural patterns
cultural imperialism
the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another culture
cultural relativism
the practice of assessing a culture by its own standards, and not in comparison to another culture
cultural universals
patterns or traits that are globally common to all societies
shared beliefs, values, and practices
culture lag
the gap of time between the introduction of material culture and nonmaterial culture’s acceptance of it
culture shock
an experience of personal disorientation when confronted with an unfamiliar way of life
the spread of material and nonmaterial culture from one culture to another
things and ideas found from what already exists
the practice of evaluating another culture according to the standards of one’s own culture
direct, appropriate behavior in the day-to-day practices and expressions of a culture
formal norms
established, written rules
the integration of international trade and finance markets
high culture
the cultural patterns of a society’s elite
ideal culture
the standards a society would like to embrace and live up to
informal norms
casual behaviors that are generally and widely conformed to
new objects or ideas introduced to culture for the first time
a combination of pieces of existing reality into new forms
a symbolic system of communication
material culture
the objects or belongings of a group of people
the moral views and principles of a group
nonmaterial culture
the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society
the visible and invisible rules of conduct through which societies are structured
popular culture
mainstream, widespread patterns among a society’s population
real culture
the way society really is based on what actually occurs and exists
a way to authorize or formally disapprove of certain behaviors
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
the way that people understand the world based on their form of language
social control
a way to encourage conformity to cultural norms
people who live in a definable community and who share a culture
groups that share a specific identification, apart from a society’s majority, even as the members exist within a larger society
gestures or objects that have meanings associated with them that are recognized by people who share a culture
a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society
a belief that another culture is superior to one’s own
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