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Introduction to Sociology 2e

Key Terms

Introduction to Sociology 2eKey Terms

acting crowds
crowds of people who are focused on a specific action or goal
alternative movements
social movements that limit themselves to self-improvement changes in individuals
assembling perspective
a theory that credits individuals in crowds as behaving as rational thinkers and views crowds as engaging in purposeful behavior and collective action
casual crowds
people who share close proximity without really interacting
collective behavior
a noninstitutionalized activity in which several people voluntarily engage
conventional crowds
people who come together for a regularly scheduled event
a fairly large number of people who share close proximity
the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people
diagnostic framing
a social problem that is stated in a clear, easily understood manner
emergent norm theory
a perspective that emphasizes the importance of social norms in crowd behavior
expressive crowds
crowds who share opportunities to express emotions
flash mob
a large group of people who gather together in a spontaneous activity that lasts a limited amount of time
frame alignment process
using bridging, amplification, extension, and transformation as an ongoing and intentional means of recruiting participants to a movement
a relatively large group with a common interest, even if they may not be in close proximity
the process that increases the amount of specialization and differentiation of structure in societies
motivational framing
a call to action
new social movement theory
a theory that attempts to explain the proliferation of postindustrial and postmodern movements that are difficult to understand using traditional social movement theories
nongovernmental organizations working globally for numerous humanitarian and environmental causes
prognostic framing
social movements that state a clear solution and a means of implementation
an unorganized, relatively diffuse group of people who share ideas
reform movements
movements that seek to change something specific about the social structure
religious/redemptive movements
movements that work to promote inner change or spiritual growth in individuals
resistance movements
those who seek to prevent or undo change to the social structure
resource mobilization theory
a theory that explains social movements’ success in terms of their ability to acquire resources and mobilize individuals
revolutionary movements
movements that seek to completely change every aspect of society
social change
the change in a society created through social movements as well as through external factors like environmental shifts or technological innovations
social movement
a purposeful organized group hoping to work toward a common social goal
social movement industry
the collection of the social movement organizations that are striving toward similar goals
social movement organization
a single social movement group
social movement sector
the multiple social movement industries in a society, even if they have widely varying constituents and goals
value-added theory
a functionalist perspective theory that posits that several preconditions must be in place for collective behavior to occur
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