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  1. Preface
  2. 1 An Introduction to Sociology
    1. Introduction to Sociology
    2. 1.1 What Is Sociology?
    3. 1.2 The History of Sociology
    4. 1.3 Theoretical Perspectives
    5. 1.4 Why Study Sociology?
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  3. 2 Sociological Research
    1. Introduction to Sociological Research
    2. 2.1 Approaches to Sociological Research
    3. 2.2 Research Methods
    4. 2.3 Ethical Concerns
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  4. 3 Culture
    1. Introduction to Culture
    2. 3.1 What Is Culture?
    3. 3.2 Elements of Culture
    4. 3.3 Pop Culture, Subculture, and Cultural Change
    5. 3.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Culture
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  5. 4 Society and Social Interaction
    1. Introduction to Society and Social Interaction
    2. 4.1 Types of Societies
    3. 4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society
    4. 4.3 Social Constructions of Reality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  6. 5 Socialization
    1. Introduction to Socialization
    2. 5.1 Theories of Self-Development
    3. 5.2 Why Socialization Matters
    4. 5.3 Agents of Socialization
    5. 5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  7. 6 Groups and Organization
    1. Introduction to Groups and Organizations
    2. 6.1 Types of Groups
    3. 6.2 Group Size and Structure
    4. 6.3 Formal Organizations
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  8. 7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    1. Introduction to Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
    2. 7.1 Deviance and Control
    3. 7.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance
    4. 7.3 Crime and the Law
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  9. 8 Media and Technology
    1. Introduction to Media and Technology
    2. 8.1 Technology Today
    3. 8.2 Media and Technology in Society
    4. 8.3 Global Implications of Media and Technology
    5. 8.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  10. 9 Social Stratification in the United States
    1. Introduction to Social Stratification in the United States
    2. 9.1 What Is Social Stratification?
    3. 9.2 Social Stratification and Mobility in the United States
    4. 9.3 Global Stratification and Inequality
    5. 9.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Social Stratification
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  11. 10 Global Inequality
    1. Introduction to Global Inequality
    2. 10.1 Global Stratification and Classification
    3. 10.2 Global Wealth and Poverty
    4. 10.3 Theoretical Perspectives on Global Stratification
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  12. 11 Race and Ethnicity
    1. Introduction to Race and Ethnicity
    2. 11.1 Racial, Ethnic, and Minority Groups
    3. 11.2 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    4. 11.3 Theories of Race and Ethnicity
    5. 11.4 Intergroup Relationships
    6. 11.5 Race and Ethnicity in the United States
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  13. 12 Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    1. Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality
    2. 12.1 Sex and Gender
    3. 12.2 Gender
    4. 12.3 Sex and Sexuality
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  14. 13 Aging and the Elderly
    1. Introduction to Aging and the Elderly
    2. 13.1 Who Are the Elderly? Aging in Society
    3. 13.2 The Process of Aging
    4. 13.3 Challenges Facing the Elderly
    5. 13.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Aging
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  15. 14 Marriage and Family
    1. Introduction to Marriage and Family
    2. 14.1 What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?
    3. 14.2 Variations in Family Life
    4. 14.3 Challenges Families Face
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  16. 15 Religion
    1. Introduction to Religion
    2. 15.1 The Sociological Approach to Religion
    3. 15.2 World Religions
    4. 15.3 Religion in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  17. 16 Education
    1. Introduction to Education
    2. 16.1 Education around the World
    3. 16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education
    4. 16.3 Issues in Education
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  18. 17 Government and Politics
    1. Introduction to Government and Politics
    2. 17.1 Power and Authority
    3. 17.2 Forms of Government
    4. 17.3 Politics in the United States
    5. 17.4 Theoretical Perspectives on Government and Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Section Quiz
    9. Short Answer
    10. Further Research
    11. References
  19. 18 Work and the Economy
    1. Introduction to Work and the Economy
    2. 18.1 Economic Systems
    3. 18.2 Globalization and the Economy
    4. 18.3 Work in the United States
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  20. 19 Health and Medicine
    1. Introduction to Health and Medicine
    2. 19.1 The Social Construction of Health
    3. 19.2 Global Health
    4. 19.3 Health in the United States
    5. 19.4 Comparative Health and Medicine
    6. 19.5 Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Section Quiz
    10. Short Answer
    11. Further Research
    12. References
  21. 20 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    1. Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment
    2. 20.1 Demography and Population
    3. 20.2 Urbanization
    4. 20.3 The Environment and Society
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. Further Research
    10. References
  22. 21 Social Movements and Social Change
    1. Introduction to Social Movements and Social Change
    2. 21.1 Collective Behavior
    3. 21.2 Social Movements
    4. 21.3 Social Change
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Section Quiz
    8. Short Answer
    9. References
  23. Index

16.1 Education around the World

1.

What are the major factors that affect education systems throughout the world?

  1. Resources and money
  2. Student interest
  3. Teacher interest
  4. Transportation
2.

What do nations that are top-ranked in science and math have in common?

  1. They are all in Asia.
  2. They recruit top teachers.
  3. They spend more money per student.
  4. They use cutting-edge technology in classrooms.
3.

Informal education _________________.

  1. describes when students teach their peers
  2. refers to the learning of cultural norms
  3. only takes place at home
  4. relies on a planned instructional process
4.

Learning from classmates that most students buy lunch on Fridays is an example of ________.

  1. cultural transmission
  2. educational access
  3. formal education
  4. informal education
5.

The 1972 case Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia set a precedent for __________.

  1. access to education
  2. average spending on students
  3. desegregation of schools
  4. teacher salary

16.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education

6.

Which of the following is not a manifest function of education?

  1. Cultural innovation
  2. Courtship
  3. Social placement
  4. Socialization
7.

Because she plans on achieving success in marketing, Tammie is taking courses on managing social media. This is an example of ________.

  1. cultural innovation
  2. social control
  3. social placement
  4. socialization
8.

Which theory of education focuses on the ways in which education maintains the status quo?

  1. Conflict theory
  2. Feminist theory
  3. Functionalist theory
  4. Symbolic interactionism
9.

Which theory of education focuses on the labels acquired through the educational process?

  1. Conflict theory
  2. Feminist theory
  3. Functionalist theory
  4. Symbolic interactionism
10.

What term describes the assignment of students to specific education programs and classes on the basis of test scores, previous grades, or perceived ability?

  1. Hidden curriculum
  2. Labeling
  3. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. Tracking
11.

Functionalist theory sees education as serving the needs of _________.

  1. families
  2. society
  3. the individual
  4. all of the above
12.

Rewarding students for meeting deadlines and respecting authority figures is an example of ________.

  1. a latent function
  2. a manifest function
  3. informal education
  4. transmission of moral education
13.

What term describes the separation of students based on merit?

  1. Cultural transmission
  2. Social control
  3. Sorting
  4. Hidden curriculum
14.

Conflict theorists see sorting as a way to ________.

  1. challenge gifted students
  2. perpetuate divisions of socioeconomic status
  3. help students who need additional support
  4. teach respect for authority
15.

Conflict theorists see IQ tests as being biased. Why?

  1. They are scored in a way that is subject to human error.
  2. They do not give children with learning disabilities a fair chance to demonstrate their true intelligence.
  3. They don’t involve enough test items to cover multiple intelligences.
  4. They reward affluent students with questions that assume knowledge associated with upper-class culture.

16.3 Issues in Education

16.

Plessy v. Ferguson set the precedent that _____________.

  1. racial segregation in schools was allowed
  2. separate schools for black and white students were unconstitutional
  3. students do not have a right to free speech in public schools
  4. students have a right to free speech in public schools
17.

Public schools must guarantee that ___________.

  1. all students graduate from high school
  2. all students receive an equal education
  3. per-student spending is equitable
  4. the amount spent on each student is equal to that spent regionally
18.

Key predictors for student success include ____________.

  1. how many school-age siblings the student has
  2. socioeconomic status and family background
  3. the age of the student when she or he enters kindergarten
  4. how many students attend the school
19.

Allowing a student to move to the next grade regardless of whether or not they have met the requirements for that grade is called ____________.

  1. affirmative action
  2. social control
  3. social promotion
  4. socialization
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