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carbon tax
a fee imposed on the use of fossil fuels based on the amount of carbon dioxide that use emits into the atmosphere
collective action
the activities of a group as it makes and implements a decision regarding a group goal
collective action problems
the broad category of activities in which participating individuals have incentives to maximize their own self-interest in ways that harm the group interest
collective dilemma
any situation in which a group must make difficult choices
conformity costs
the difference between what an individual wants from a policy decision and what the individual actually receives
coordination problems
the challenges groups face when there is general agreement on goals but disagreement on the specific ways in which to achieve them
elite culture
those in a country who, by virtue of their wealth, education, and position, have the dominant influence over politics and policy
free rider problem
when individuals in groups have incentives not to contribute to the group’s goals because they will receive the same outcome whether they contribute or not
majority rule
a form of decision-making by voting, in which the proposition that receives more than 50 percent of the votes wins
mass culture
the most popular views, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors within a society
minority cultures
the views, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors of subsets of a society that produce group identity
political culture
the set of shared political attitudes, values, goals, and practices within a country
political elites
those within a society who, by virtue of their wealth, status, positions, and power, have the greatest influence over the country’s political agenda, its policy decisions, and its decision-making cadre
political socialization
the gradual development, from youth through adulthood, of a political personality
prisoner’s dilemma
a scenario in which two individuals would benefit from cooperating, but each has strong incentives to defect, leaving both individuals worse off than if they had cooperated
the minimum number of the group that must be present for a vote to be held
the gradual process through which a person develops the values and beliefs that determine who they will be as an adult
status quo
the current situation
a voting rule in which more than a majority is needed for a measure to pass
tragedy of the commons
a situation in which individuals have incentives to take as much as they can from a public resource, thereby depleting the resource
transaction costs
the time, money, and effort required to make a group decision
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