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1 .
Plato’s ideal system of government is rule by __________.
  1. the working class
  2. military generals
  3. philosophers
  4. artists
2 .
How does Aristotle describe democracy?
  1. As a system of government directed toward the benefit of the rich
  2. As a system of government that necessarily benefits all
  3. As the ideal political system
  4. As a defective system that works for the interests of the many at the expense of the rest
3 .
What is the state of nature?
  1. The condition in which government exists and serves the public interest
  2. The condition before a government exists
  3. A key concept in the political thought of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau
  4. The condition in which government exists and abuses the rich
  5. Both B and C
4 .
Hobbes saw the state of nature as __________ and argued that rational individuals in the state of nature would seek to create a(n) __________.
  1. full of pleasure; limited government
  2. defined by harmony; government comprised of musicians
  3. full of tension, stress, and competition; limited government
  4. full of tension, stress, and competition; unlimited government
5 .
Locke believed that government __________.
  1. must enforce the natural law
  2. must be structured as a monarchy
  3. must redistribute private property by taking the property of the rich and giving it to the poor
  4. must develop a civil religion
6 .
Adam Smith advocated __________.
  1. an economic system that limits international free trade
  2. free trade among nations
  3. eliminating private property
  4. socialism
7 .
According to John Stuart Mill, personal freedom is __________.
  1. of limited importance
  2. a relic of old and obsolete thinking
  3. to be highly prized
  4. destined to lead to civil war
8 .
The harm principle assumes that __________.
  1. freedom encourages an experimentation and open dialogue that allows people to reject dangerous ideas
  2. freedom encourages tension, stress, and competition
  3. freedom inevitably results in religious extremism
  4. in the state of nature, people will always act in their own self-interest
9 .
Marxism views the working class as __________.
  1. the most privileged class
  2. the class that will lead a revolution against capitalism
  3. the owners of the means of production under capitalism
  4. the perpetuators of systemic racism
10 .
Gramsci believed that __________.
  1. capitalists use cultural control to shape workers’ way of thinking against the goals of Marxism
  2. a workers’ revolution would never happen
  3. traditional religion is highly valuable and should be protected against critique
  4. owners and workers are on the same team
11 .
Authoritarianism always entails a complete repudiation of individual rights.
  1. True
  2. False
12 .
Maoism alters Marxism by seeing __________.
  1. capitalism as good
  2. the peasantry as unable to change society
  3. religion as a social force to be celebrated and promoted
  4. None of the above
13 .
The center left is a form of __________.
  1. democratic liberalism
  2. communism
  3. socialism
  4. populism
14 .
Political fusionism combines __________.
  1. Marxism and multiculturalism
  2. moderate economic liberalism and moderate social liberalism
  3. moderate economic libertarianism and extreme social conservatism
  4. moderate economic libertarianism and moderate social conservatism
15 .
Which of the following ideologies is not associated with the New Left?
  1. Environmentalism
  2. Second-wave feminism
  3. Conservative populism
  4. Indigenism
16 .
The assertion that contemporary Western societies manifest structural racism is __________.
  1. a key position of conservative populists
  2. a key element of communism
  3. a key position of critical race theorists
  4. a key element of Maoism
17 .
Conservative populism __________.
  1. sees the New Left as a threat
  2. sees the center right as inadequate
  3. has seen electoral success in the United States, Hungary, and Brazil
  4. All of the above
18 .
Those on the New Right see “woke capitalists” as __________.
  1. betraying the long-standing social values of their countries of origin
  2. violating the close connection between economic freedom, free markets, and social conservatism that defined the center-right coalition for decades
  3. embracing Marxist ideals
  4. Both A and B
  5. All of the above
19 .
What alternative to political ideology do Burkeans propose?
  1. Strict adherence to empirical social science
  2. Religious extremism
  3. The lessons of history and tradition
  4. None of the above
20 .
Religious extremists reject basing government on __________.
  1. human reason
  2. individual religious texts
  3. national identity
  4. revelations
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