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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Introduction to Political Science
    1. 1 What Is Politics and What Is Political Science?
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Defining Politics: Who Gets What, When, Where, How, and Why?
      3. 1.2 Public Policy, Public Interest, and Power
      4. 1.3 Political Science: The Systematic Study of Politics
      5. 1.4 Normative Political Science
      6. 1.5 Empirical Political Science
      7. 1.6 Individuals, Groups, Institutions, and International Relations
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  3. Individuals
    1. 2 Political Behavior Is Human Behavior
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 What Goals Should We Seek in Politics?
      3. 2.2 Why Do Humans Make the Political Choices That They Do?
      4. 2.3 Human Behavior Is Partially Predictable
      5. 2.4 The Importance of Context for Political Decisions
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 3 Political Ideology
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 The Classical Origins of Western Political Ideologies
      3. 3.2 The Laws of Nature and the Social Contract
      4. 3.3 The Development of Varieties of Liberalism
      5. 3.4 Nationalism, Communism, Fascism, and Authoritarianism
      6. 3.5 Contemporary Democratic Liberalism
      7. 3.6 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Left
      8. 3.7 Contemporary Ideologies Further to the Political Right
      9. 3.8 Political Ideologies That Reject Political Ideology: Scientific Socialism, Burkeanism, and Religious Extremism
      10. Summary
      11. Key Terms
      12. Review Questions
      13. Suggested Readings
    3. 4 Civil Liberties
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 The Freedom of the Individual
      3. 4.2 Constitutions and Individual Liberties
      4. 4.3 The Right to Privacy, Self-Determination, and the Freedom of Ideas
      5. 4.4 Freedom of Movement
      6. 4.5 The Rights of the Accused
      7. 4.6 The Right to a Healthy Environment
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 5 Political Participation and Public Opinion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 What Is Political Participation?
      3. 5.2 What Limits Voter Participation in the United States?
      4. 5.3 How Do Individuals Participate Other Than Voting?
      5. 5.4 What Is Public Opinion and Where Does It Come From?
      6. 5.5 How Do We Measure Public Opinion?
      7. 5.6 Why Is Public Opinion Important?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  4. Groups
    1. 6 The Fundamentals of Group Political Activity
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Political Socialization: The Ways People Become Political
      3. 6.2 Political Culture: How People Express Their Political Identity
      4. 6.3 Collective Dilemmas: Making Group Decisions
      5. 6.4 Collective Action Problems: The Problem of Incentives
      6. 6.5 Resolving Collective Action Problems
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    2. 7 Civil Rights
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Civil Rights and Constitutionalism
      3. 7.2 Political Culture and Majority-Minority Relations
      4. 7.3 Civil Rights Abuses
      5. 7.4 Civil Rights Movements
      6. 7.5 How Do Governments Bring About Civil Rights Change?
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
    3. 8 Interest Groups, Political Parties, and Elections
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 What Is an Interest Group?
      3. 8.2 What Are the Pros and Cons of Interest Groups?
      4. 8.3 Political Parties
      5. 8.4 What Are the Limits of Parties?
      6. 8.5 What Are Elections and Who Participates?
      7. 8.6 How Do People Participate in Elections?
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  5. Institutions
    1. 9 Legislatures
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 What Do Legislatures Do?
      3. 9.2 What Is the Difference between Parliamentary and Presidential Systems?
      4. 9.3 What Is the Difference between Unicameral and Bicameral Systems?
      5. 9.4 The Decline of Legislative Influence
      6. Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Review Questions
      9. Suggested Readings
    2. 10 Executives, Cabinets, and Bureaucracies
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Democracies: Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Regimes
      3. 10.2 The Executive in Presidential Regimes
      4. 10.3 The Executive in Parliamentary Regimes
      5. 10.4 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Challenges of Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes
      6. 10.5 Semi-Presidential Regimes
      7. 10.6 How Do Cabinets Function in Presidential and Parliamentary Regimes?
      8. 10.7 What Are the Purpose and Function of Bureaucracies?
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 11 Courts and Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 What Is the Judiciary?
      3. 11.2 How Does the Judiciary Take Action?
      4. 11.3 Types of Legal Systems around the World
      5. 11.4 Criminal versus Civil Laws
      6. 11.5 Due Process and Judicial Fairness
      7. 11.6 Judicial Review versus Executive Sovereignty
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 12 The Media
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Media as a Political Institution: Why Does It Matter?
      3. 12.2 Types of Media and the Changing Media Landscape
      4. 12.3 How Do Media and Elections Interact?
      5. 12.4 The Internet and Social Media
      6. 12.5 Declining Global Trust in the Media
      7. Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Review Questions
      10. Suggested Readings
  6. States and International Relations
    1. 13 Governing Regimes
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Contemporary Government Regimes: Power, Legitimacy, and Authority
      3. 13.2 Categorizing Contemporary Regimes
      4. 13.3 Recent Trends: Illiberal Representative Regimes
      5. Summary
      6. Key Terms
      7. Review Questions
      8. Suggested Readings
    2. 14 International Relations
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 What Is Power, and How Do We Measure It?
      3. 14.2 Understanding the Different Types of Actors in the International System
      4. 14.3 Sovereignty and Anarchy
      5. 14.4 Using Levels of Analysis to Understand Conflict
      6. 14.5 The Realist Worldview
      7. 14.6 The Liberal and Social Worldview
      8. 14.7 Critical Worldviews
      9. Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Review Questions
      12. Suggested Readings
    3. 15 International Law and International Organizations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 The Problem of Global Governance
      3. 15.2 International Law
      4. 15.3 The United Nations and Global Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
      5. 15.4 How Do Regional IGOs Contribute to Global Governance?
      6. 15.5 Non-state Actors: Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
      7. 15.6 Non-state Actors beyond NGOs
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
    4. 16 International Political Economy
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 The Origins of International Political Economy
      3. 16.2 The Advent of the Liberal Economy
      4. 16.3 The Bretton Woods Institutions
      5. 16.4 The Post–Cold War Period and Modernization Theory
      6. 16.5 From the 1990s to the 2020s: Current Issues in IPE
      7. 16.6 Considering Poverty, Inequality, and the Environmental Crisis
      8. Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Review Questions
      11. Suggested Readings
  7. References
  8. Index
1.
In international relations, power refers to ________.
  1. the ability of a state to run its institutions without fear of interference from other states or entities
  2. the ability of a state to prompt its preferred outcome in a given situation
  3. when one state can create a particular good or service in a more cost-effective manner than a second state
  4. friendly interactions that seek to win over rather than force a state or states to comply with the wishes of one or more other states
2.
States pursue ________ policies when they build up military might in order to influence an adversary state or states to reconsider taking aggressive military action against them.
  1. sovereignty
  2. collective security
  3. destabilizing
  4. deterrence
3.
A state both exercises and bestows power when it recognizes another state’s ________.
  1. national identity
  2. comparative advantage
  3. sovereignty
  4. hegemony
4.
Which of these is not a defining characteristic of a state?
  1. Land with boundaries
  2. A government or a system of rule
  3. A population that willingly gives its allegiance to that government
  4. A shared identity based on common history, religion, or ethnic background
5.
States that have the greatest ________ can use intergovernmental organizations to expand their power.
  1. hard power
  2. soft power
  3. comparative advantage
  4. diplomatic reach
6.
One benefit of NGOs is that they are usually able to propose solutions to problems or provide aid without ________.
  1. incurring expenses
  2. threatening a state’s sovereignty
  3. acquiring state approval
  4. concern for humanitarian objectives
7.
Because all formally recognized states in the international system have ________, if other states want to influence their behavior, they employ sanctions, diplomacy, military action, or other persuasive tactics.
  1. established armies
  2. state sovereignty
  3. soft power
  4. the rule of law
8.
In the international system, anarchy exists because ________.
  1. the system is multipolar
  2. it ensures adherence to human rights norms
  3. of the weakness of individual states
  4. there is no overarching governing authority
9.
Within the anarchy of the international system, states join ________ to work together to solve common problems.
  1. international organizations
  2. bipolar systems
  3. nations
  4. think tanks
10.
A political scientist studying how reelection campaigns affect presidential decision-making would be using what level of analysis?
  1. Individual
  2. State
  3. Institutional
  4. Systemic
11.
At every level of analysis, ________ constrain(s) actors.
  1. anarchy
  2. conflict
  3. norms
  4. voters
12.
The anarchic nature of the international system makes which level of analysis particularly unpredictable?
  1. Individual
  2. State
  3. Institutional
  4. Global
13.
According to the realist worldview, ________ are the main actors in the international system.
  1. militaries
  2. core countries
  3. states
  4. intergovernmental organizations
14.
According to the realist worldview, states act in the interest of ________.
  1. their own security
  2. maintaining the status quo
  3. fulfilling commitments to international treaties
  4. the good of the international system as a whole
15.
The Russian military buildup on the Ukraine border in early 2022 and calculated responses from the United States and its NATO allies can be viewed as a ________.
  1. proxy war
  2. security dilemma
  3. zero-sum game
  4. use of soft power
16.
Adherents to which variety of realism are most likely to support the status quo?
  1. Structural realism
  2. Neorealism
  3. Offensive realism
  4. Defensive realism
17.
According to the liberal worldview, ________ is the best way for a state to ensure its secure position in the international system.
  1. going it alone
  2. providing social welfare programs
  3. working toward the good of the international system
  4. using international institutions to achieve state goals
18.
Which of the following is not one of the tenets of complex interdependence?
  1. States see the use of force as relatively more costly than any gain it might achieve and so may be inclined to chart paths of cooperation and the use of more stable institutional solutions.
  2. There are many pathways actors can take to achieve their desired ends. These pathways are differentiated based on the abilities of each of the actors.
  3. All issues are of relatively equal importance to states.
  4. When states have a comparative advantage, they have an incentive to keep other countries in positions of political and social unrest.
19.
________ countries invest internally, developing their own power and industries and promoting the success of individual workers in order to benefit their own citizens.
  1. Neorealist
  2. Marxist
  3. Hegemonic
  4. Peripheral
20.
According to ________ theory, international relations has traditionally focused on “hard policy” issues, such as conflict and security, and has relegated to second-class status issues related to development and access to social programs.
  1. feminist
  2. Marxist
  3. complex interdependence
  4. game
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