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the biological process whereby the body prepares itself for anticipated needs.
Anchoring bias
the tendency to make estimates based on an earlier initial value.
Availability heuristic
the tendency to evaluate new information based on the most recent or most easily recalled examples.
Bandwagon fallacy
the fallacy that we ought to do something or believe something because many other people do or believe the same thing.
Cognitive bias
a systematic pattern of reasoning that deviates from a rationally optimal or logical judgment based on available facts and probabilities.
Cognitive science
the study of the brain and the mechanisms underlying thought, perception, memory, emotion, and other functions of the brain.
Confirmation bias
the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information that confirms or supports established beliefs.
a method of discovering truth that comes from dialogue and uses the exchange of different points of view to arrive at a position that is more likely to be true.
Dunning-Kruger effect
the cognitive bias in which people with little expertise in a specific task rate their knowledge too highly relative to others with more knowledge.
Epistemic humility
a stance in philosophical and scientific investigation that recognizes the limits of one’s own ability to know truth and reality in a direct or complete way.
Gambler’s fallacy
the reasoning that holds that if a chance event has happened less frequently in the recent past, it is more likely to happen in the near future (or vice versa).
mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that provide a method of problem-solving that is not necessarily optimal but is efficient.
the biological process whereby the body regulates itself to maintain a state of equilibrium.
the mental process that leads from one set of information (premises, data, or information) to another (a conclusion, construction, or projection).
the process of thinking about thinking. Metacognition engages self-awareness and higher-order thinking skills so that an individual can regulate, monitor, and critically analyze their own thought processes.
Principle of charity
the interpretative principle that says a reader ought to interpret the author’s statements in the most rational and best possible way.
an information-bearing unit of thought. Representations are the objects that minds consider when they think.
a strategy for making opposing arguments as strong as possible so that it is difficult to knock them down.
Sunk-cost fallacy
the fallacy of attaching a greater value to something than is warranted because a person has already invested time, resources, and emotion in that thing (or person).
the tendency for human beings to align their beliefs and attitudes with groups of people who have similar attitudes, practices, or beliefs.
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