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a foundational principle in Indian philosophy to refrain from harming oneself or others.
in Marxism, the estrangement of workers from their work and from themselves due to capitalist exploitation.
a state of no governance or political oversight.
a class of people considered to be elite members of society.
money and commodities.
government either by elected representatives of the people or directly by the people themselves.
Divine rule
a doctrine of political authority in which the legitimacy of the monarch or ruler is derived from the will of the divine.
the notion that all individuals enjoy equal status and moral worth and that any legitimate system of government should reflect this in its policies and procedures.
in governance, acceptance of one’s right to rule by the people being ruled.
the philosophy of the Chinese philosopher Mozi or the teachings of the Mozi, a book thought to be a collection of writings by followers of Mozi’s teachings.
a system of rule by one individual, who usually inherits their position.
Natural law
moral law naturally intuited by humankind, according to the rationality given to them by God.
Negative liberty
a state in which one is neither constrained to act nor obligated to refrain from acting in a specific way.
Political philosophy
the branch of philosophy that investigates concepts of justice and legitimacy as well as the relationships among political systems, governments, and the people.
Social contract
an agreement among members of society to cooperate and allow some limits of their natural rights in exchange for protection and mutual benefits provided by government.
a system of government that exercises complete control over its people in terms of both their personal and their public lives.
Veil of ignorance
an imagined scenario in which a person deliberately remains unaware of any personal traits and does not know what social, political, or economic group they are in.
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