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the intentional ending of a pregnancy.
Active euthanasia
a form of euthanasia in which a patient’s life is terminated using medical interventions (e.g., administering a lethal dose of medication).
Anthropogenic climate change
changes in Earth’s climate caused or influenced by human activity.
Applied ethics
an area of ethics that focuses on the application of moral norms and principles to controversial issues to determine the rightness of specific actions.
a field that studies ethical issues that emerge with advances in biology, technology, and medicine.
Clinical trials
trials designed to test new medical interventions and establish a drug’s dosage, determine possible side effects, and demonstrate efficacy.
Deep ecology
an approach to environmental ethics that assumes all living things are valuable in their own right and not only because of their usefulness.
someone who believes that ethical actions follow universal moral laws.
the point in time when a developing life is believed to possess a soul.
Environmental ethics
an area of applied ethics that attempts to rethink our relationship to the natural world and identify right conduct in our dealings with the nonhuman world.
means “good death” and refers to the ending of a human life to avoid suffering.
the means by which an invisible, unchanging creator gives rise to the material world that we live in.
Germ-line interventions
inheritable genetic modification.
Human augmentation
refers to attempts to enhance or increase human capabilities through technological, biomedical, or other interventions.
the idea that being is composed of matter and form that causes the being to actualize its potential.
Institutional review boards (IRBs)
committees tasked with reviewing and vetting parameters of trials to protect participants and identify potential issues.
Instrumental value
possessing value as a means to something else or for the sake of something else.
Intrinsic value
possessing value in itself or for its own sake.
Meaningful work
work that is at the same time understood as an end and a possessor of moral status.
Opportunity cost
the cost incurred by not pursuing other options.
Passive euthanasia
a form of euthanasia in which treatment is withheld or withdrawn with the expectation that a patient will die sooner than they would with continued medical intervention.
the capacity humans possess that distinguish them as beings capable of morality.
Physician-assisted suicide
(PAS) a practice in which a physician provides the means (e.g., a prescription for a lethal dose of medication) and/or information to assist a patient in ending their own life.
Principle of autonomy
principle that states that patients have a right to exercise agency or self-determination when it comes to making decisions about their own health care in clinical settings.
Principle of beneficence
principle that states that we should act in ways that benefit others or that are for the good of others.
Principle of clinical equipoise
principle that states that randomized trials should be conducted in a way that balances the interests of participants and aims of science.
Principle of justice
principle that states that the distribution and practice of health care should be equitable or fair.
Principle of nonmaleficence
principle that states that we should act in ways that do not cause harm to others.
individuals who own a share of a corporation.
Somatic cell interventions
genetic interventions in which genetic changes cannot be inherited or passed to a patient’s offspring.
any individual who has a stake in a business’s operations.
Strong artificial intelligence
machines that perform multiple cognitive tasks like humans but at a very rapid pace (machine speed).
Weak artificial intelligence
machines that perform primarily one task, such as Apple’s Siri or social media bots.
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