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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Philosophy?
    3. 1.2 How Do Philosophers Arrive at Truth?
    4. 1.3 Socrates as a Paradigmatic Historical Philosopher
    5. 1.4 An Overview of Contemporary Philosophy
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  3. 2 Critical Thinking, Research, Reading, and Writing
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Brain Is an Inference Machine
    3. 2.2 Overcoming Cognitive Biases and Engaging in Critical Reflection
    4. 2.3 Developing Good Habits of Mind
    5. 2.4 Gathering Information, Evaluating Sources, and Understanding Evidence
    6. 2.5 Reading Philosophy
    7. 2.6 Writing Philosophy Papers
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  4. 3 The Early History of Philosophy around the World
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Indigenous Philosophy
    3. 3.2 Classical Indian Philosophy
    4. 3.3 Classical Chinese Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  5. 4 The Emergence of Classical Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Historiography and the History of Philosophy
    3. 4.2 Classical Philosophy
    4. 4.3 Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Philosophy
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  6. 5 Logic and Reasoning
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Philosophical Methods for Discovering Truth
    3. 5.2 Logical Statements
    4. 5.3 Arguments
    5. 5.4 Types of Inferences
    6. 5.5 Informal Fallacies
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  7. 6 Metaphysics
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Substance
    3. 6.2 Self and Identity
    4. 6.3 Cosmology and the Existence of God
    5. 6.4 Free Will
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  8. 7 Epistemology
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Epistemology Studies
    3. 7.2 Knowledge
    4. 7.3 Justification
    5. 7.4 Skepticism
    6. 7.5 Applied Epistemology
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  9. 8 Value Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 The Fact-Value Distinction
    3. 8.2 Basic Questions about Values
    4. 8.3 Metaethics
    5. 8.4 Well-Being
    6. 8.5 Aesthetics
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
    11. Further Reading
  10. 9 Normative Moral Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Requirements of a Normative Moral Theory
    3. 9.2 Consequentialism
    4. 9.3 Deontology
    5. 9.4 Virtue Ethics
    6. 9.5 Daoism
    7. 9.6 Feminist Theories of Ethics
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. References
    11. Review Questions
    12. Further Reading
  11. 10 Applied Ethics
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 The Challenge of Bioethics
    3. 10.2 Environmental Ethics
    4. 10.3 Business Ethics and Emerging Technology
    5. Summary
    6. Key Terms
    7. References
    8. Review Questions
    9. Further Reading
  12. 11 Political Philosophy
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Historical Perspectives on Government
    3. 11.2 Forms of Government
    4. 11.3 Political Legitimacy and Duty
    5. 11.4 Political Ideologies
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. References
    9. Review Questions
    10. Further Reading
  13. 12 Contemporary Philosophies and Social Theories
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Enlightenment Social Theory
    3. 12.2 The Marxist Solution
    4. 12.3 Continental Philosophy’s Challenge to Enlightenment Theories
    5. 12.4 The Frankfurt School
    6. 12.5 Postmodernism
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. References
    10. Review Questions
  14. Index
Abortion
the intentional ending of a pregnancy.
Active euthanasia
a form of euthanasia in which a patient’s life is terminated using medical interventions (e.g., administering a lethal dose of medication).
Anthropocentric
human-centered.
Anthropogenic climate change
changes in Earth’s climate caused or influenced by human activity.
Applied ethics
an area of ethics that focuses on the application of moral norms and principles to controversial issues to determine the rightness of specific actions.
Bioethics
a field that studies ethical issues that emerge with advances in biology, technology, and medicine.
Clinical trials
trials designed to test new medical interventions and establish a drug’s dosage, determine possible side effects, and demonstrate efficacy.
Deep ecology
an approach to environmental ethics that assumes all living things are valuable in their own right and not only because of their usefulness.
Deontologist
someone who believes that ethical actions follow universal moral laws.
Ensoulment
the point in time when a developing life is believed to possess a soul.
Environmental ethics
an area of applied ethics that attempts to rethink our relationship to the natural world and identify right conduct in our dealings with the nonhuman world.
Euthanasia
means “good death” and refers to the ending of a human life to avoid suffering.
Forms
the means by which an invisible, unchanging creator gives rise to the material world that we live in.
Germ-line interventions
inheritable genetic modification.
Human augmentation
refers to attempts to enhance or increase human capabilities through technological, biomedical, or other interventions.
Hylomorphism
the idea that being is composed of matter and form that causes the being to actualize its potential.
Institutional review boards (IRBs)
committees tasked with reviewing and vetting parameters of trials to protect participants and identify potential issues.
Instrumental value
possessing value as a means to something else or for the sake of something else.
Intrinsic value
possessing value in itself or for its own sake.
Meaningful work
work that is at the same time understood as an end and a possessor of moral status.
Opportunity cost
the cost incurred by not pursuing other options.
Passive euthanasia
a form of euthanasia in which treatment is withheld or withdrawn with the expectation that a patient will die sooner than they would with continued medical intervention.
Personhood
the capacity humans possess that distinguish them as beings capable of morality.
Physician-assisted suicide
(PAS) a practice in which a physician provides the means (e.g., a prescription for a lethal dose of medication) and/or information to assist a patient in ending their own life.
Principle of autonomy
principle that states that patients have a right to exercise agency or self-determination when it comes to making decisions about their own health care in clinical settings.
Principle of beneficence
principle that states that we should act in ways that benefit others or that are for the good of others.
Principle of clinical equipoise
principle that states that randomized trials should be conducted in a way that balances the interests of participants and aims of science.
Principle of justice
principle that states that the distribution and practice of health care should be equitable or fair.
Principle of nonmaleficence
principle that states that we should act in ways that do not cause harm to others.
Shareholders
individuals who own a share of a corporation.
Somatic cell interventions
genetic interventions in which genetic changes cannot be inherited or passed to a patient’s offspring.
Stakeholders
any individual who has a stake in a business’s operations.
Strong artificial intelligence
machines that perform multiple cognitive tasks like humans but at a very rapid pace (machine speed).
Weak artificial intelligence
machines that perform primarily one task, such as Apple’s Siri or social media bots.
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