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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Understanding Economic Systems and Business
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 The Nature of Business
    3. 1.2 Understanding the Business Environment
    4. 1.3 How Business and Economics Work
    5. 1.4 Macroeconomics: The Big Picture
    6. 1.5 Achieving Macroeconomic Goals
    7. 1.6 Microeconomics: Zeroing in on Businesses and Consumers
    8. 1.7 Competing in a Free Market
    9. 1.8 Trends in the Business Environment and Competition
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  3. 2 Making Ethical Decisions and Managing a Socially Responsible Business
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Understanding Business Ethics
    3. 2.2 How Organizations Influence Ethical Conduct
    4. 2.3 Managing a Socially Responsible Business
    5. 2.4 Responsibilities to Stakeholders
    6. 2.5 Trends in Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    9. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    10. Ethics Activity
    11. Working the Net
    12. Critical Thinking Case
    13. Hot Links Address Book
  4. 3 Competing in the Global Marketplace
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Global Trade in the United States
    3. 3.2 Why Nations Trade
    4. 3.3 Barriers to Trade
    5. 3.4 Fostering Global Trade
    6. 3.5 International Economic Communities
    7. 3.6 Participating in the Global Marketplace
    8. 3.7 Threats and Opportunities in the Global Marketplace
    9. 3.8 The Impact of Multinational Corporations
    10. 3.9 Trends in Global Competition
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    13. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    14. Ethics Activity
    15. Working the Net
    16. Critical Thinking Case
    17. Hot Links Address Book
  5. 4 Forms of Business Ownership
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Going It Alone: Sole Proprietorships
    3. 4.2 Partnerships: Sharing the Load
    4. 4.3 Corporations: Limiting Your Liability
    5. 4.4 Specialized Forms of Business Organization
    6. 4.5 Franchising: A Popular Trend
    7. 4.6 Mergers and Acquisitions
    8. 4.7 Trends in Business Ownership
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    11. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    12. Ethics Activity
    13. Working the Net
    14. Critical Thinking Case
    15. Hot Links Address Book
  6. 5 Entrepreneurship: Starting and Managing Your Own Business
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Entrepreneurship Today
    3. 5.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
    4. 5.3 Small Business: Driving America's Growth
    5. 5.4 Ready, Set, Start Your Own Business
    6. 5.5 Managing a Small Business
    7. 5.6 Small Business, Large Impact
    8. 5.7 The Small Business Administration
    9. 5.8 Trends in Entrepreneurship and Small-Business Ownership
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  7. 6 Management and Leadership in Today's Organizations
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Role of Management
    3. 6.2 Planning
    4. 6.3 Organizing
    5. 6.4 Leading, Guiding, and Motivating Others
    6. 6.5 Controlling
    7. 6.6 Managerial Roles
    8. 6.7 Managerial Skills
    9. 6.8 Trends in Management and Leadership
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  8. 7 Designing Organizational Structures
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Building Organizational Structures
    3. 7.2 Contemporary Structures
    4. 7.3 Using Teams to Enhance Motivation and Performance
    5. 7.4 Authority—Establishing Organizational Relationships
    6. 7.5 Degree of Centralization
    7. 7.6 Organizational Design Considerations
    8. 7.7 The Informal Organization
    9. 7.8 Trends in Organizational Structure
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  9. 8 Managing Human Resources and Labor Relations
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Achieving High Performance through Human Resources Management
    3. 8.2 Employee Recruitment
    4. 8.3 Employee Selection
    5. 8.4 Employee Training and Development
    6. 8.5 Performance Planning and Evaluation
    7. 8.6 Employee Compensation and Benefits
    8. 8.7 The Labor Relations Process
    9. 8.8 Managing Grievances and Conflicts
    10. 8.9 Legal Environment of Human Resources and Labor Relations
    11. 8.10 Trends in Human Resource Management and Labor Relations
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    14. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    15. Ethics Activity
    16. Working the Net
    17. Critical Thinking Case
    18. Hot Links Address Book
  10. 9 Motivating Employees
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Early Theories of Motivation
    3. 9.2 The Hawthorne Studies
    4. 9.3 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    5. 9.4 McGregor's Theories X and Y
    6. 9.5 Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory
    7. 9.6 Contemporary Views on Motivation
    8. 9.7 From Motivation Theory to Application
    9. 9.8 Trends in Employee Motivation
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  11. 10 Achieving World-Class Operations Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Production and Operations Management—An Overview
    3. 10.2 The Production Process: How Do We Make It?
    4. 10.3 Location, Location, Location: Where Do We Make It?
    5. 10.4 Pulling It Together: Resource Planning
    6. 10.5 Production and Operations Control
    7. 10.6 Looking for a Better Way: Improving Production and Operations
    8. 10.7 Transforming the Factory Floor with Technology
    9. 10.8 Trends in Production and Operations Management
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  12. 11 Creating Products and Pricing Strategies to Meet Customers' Needs
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 The Marketing Concept
    3. 11.2 Creating a Marketing Strategy
    4. 11.3 Developing a Marketing Mix
    5. 11.4 Buyer Behavior
    6. 11.5 Market Segmentation
    7. 11.6 What Is a Product?
    8. 11.7 Creating Products That Deliver Value
    9. 11.8 The Product Life Cycle
    10. 11.9 Pricing Strategies and Future Trends
    11. 11.10 Trends in Developing Products and Pricing
    12. Key Terms
    13. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    14. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    15. Ethics Activity
    16. Working the Net
    17. Critical Thinking Case
    18. Hot Links Address Book
  13. 12 Distributing and Promoting Products and Services
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 The Nature and Functions of Distribution (Place)
    3. 12.2 Wholesaling
    4. 12.3 The Competitive World of Retailing
    5. 12.4 Using Supply Chain Management to Increase Efficiency and Customer Satisfaction
    6. 12.5 Promotion Strategy
    7. 12.6 The Huge Impact of Advertising
    8. 12.7 The Importance of Personal Selling
    9. 12.8 Sales Promotion
    10. 12.9 Public Relations Helps Build Goodwill
    11. 12.10 Trends in Social Media
    12. 12.11 Trends in E-Commerce
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    15. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    16. Ethics Activity
    17. Working the Net
    18. Critical Thinking Case
    19. Hot Links Address Book
  14. 13 Using Technology to Manage Information
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Transforming Businesses through Information
    3. 13.2 Linking Up: Computer Networks
    4. 13.3 Management Information Systems
    5. 13.4 Technology Management and Planning
    6. 13.5 Protecting Computers and Information
    7. 13.6 Trends in Information Technology
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    11. Ethics Activity
    12. Working the Net
    13. Critical Thinking Case
    14. Hot Links Address Book
  15. 14 Using Financial Information and Accounting
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Accounting: More than Numbers
    3. 14.2 The Accounting Profession
    4. 14.3 Basic Accounting Procedures
    5. 14.4 The Balance Sheet
    6. 14.5 The Income Statement
    7. 14.6 The Statement of Cash Flows
    8. 14.7 Analyzing Financial Statements
    9. 14.8 Trends in Accounting
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  16. 15 Understanding Money and Financial Institutions
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Show Me the Money
    3. 15.2 The Federal Reserve System
    4. 15.3 U.S. Financial Institutions
    5. 15.4 Insuring Bank Deposits
    6. 15.5 International Banking
    7. 15.6 Trends in Financial Institutions
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    10. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    11. Ethics Activity
    12. Working the Net
    13. Critical Thinking Case
    14. Hot Links Address Book
  17. 16 Understanding Financial Management and Securities Markets
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 The Role of Finance and the Financial Manager
    3. 16.2 How Organizations Use Funds
    4. 16.3 Obtaining Short-Term Financing
    5. 16.4 Raising Long-Term Financing
    6. 16.5 Equity Financing
    7. 16.6 Securities Markets
    8. 16.7 Buying and Selling at Securities Exchanges
    9. 16.8 Trends in Financial Management and Securities Markets
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary of Learning Outcomes
    12. Preparing for Tomorrow's Workplace Skills
    13. Ethics Activity
    14. Working the Net
    15. Critical Thinking Case
    16. Hot Links Address Book
  18. 17 Your Career in Business
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Learn the Basics of Business
    3. 17.2 Developing Interpersonal Skills Is Key to Your Success
    4. 17.3 Make Your Future Happen: Learn to Plan
    5. 17.4 Going to College Is an Opportunity of a Lifetime—Never Drop Out
    6. 17.5 Get Your Career Off on the Right Track
    7. 17.6 Self-Test Scoring Guidelines
  19. A | Understanding the Legal and Tax Environment
  20. Index
  21. References

Welcome to Introduction to Business, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

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About Introduction to Business

Introduction to Business is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of foundational business courses. The textbook presents business principles and emerging trends in fields including management, leadership, production, marketing, and finance. Through this content, students will acquire the knowledge, skills, and competencies to prepare for the competitive workplace.

Coverage and scope

Introduction to Business covers the scope and sequence of most introductory business courses. The book provides detailed explanations in the context of core themes such as ethics, entrepreneurship, customer satisfaction, global business, and managing change. Introduction to Business includes hundreds of current business examples from a range of industries, geographic locations, and featuring a variety of individuals. The outcome is a balanced approach to the theory and application of business concepts, with attention to the knowledge and skills necessary for student success in this course and beyond.

Pedagogical foundation

Consistent, integrated learning. Targeted learning outcomes are listed at the beginning of each chapter and then repeated throughout the chapter. The learning outcomes connect to the text and the additional resources that accompany Introduction to Business. After reading each section, students can test their retention by answering the questions in the Concept Checks. Every learning goal is further reinforced by a summary.

Hundreds of business examples to bring concepts to life. This book is designed to speak to the typical student. We have done a lot of research about student needs, abilities, experiences, and interests, and then we have shaped the text around them. We have used experiences both inside and outside the classroom to enrich a book that is both readable and enjoyable. We believe that the real business applications found throughout every chapter set the standard for readability and understanding of key concepts.

Learning business terminology, made easy. As students begin to study business, they will explore new words and concepts. To help them learn this language of business, we define each new term in the chapter, display the terms in bold, and offer a complete glossary at the end of the book.

Engaging business themes

Ethics. Business presents outstanding opportunities to do good. Through responsible business practices and the development and distribution of helpful products and services, businesspeople can positively affect their community. A paramount theme of this text is that business must be conducted in an ethical and socially responsible manner. Chapter 2, Making Ethical Decisions and Managing a Socially Responsible Business, is completely devoted to business ethics and social responsibility. We discuss techniques for setting personal ethical standards, how managers influence organizational ethics, tools for creating employee ethical awareness, and the concept of individual and corporate responsibility. Introduction to Business also features ethics activities at the end of each chapter. All ethical dilemmas are taken right out of today’s business world.

Customer satisfaction and quality. Because customer satisfaction and quality are the foundation of all business principles, these important topics are addressed in most chapters within Introduction to Business. Each chapter stresses that satisfied customers who experience high-quality products and services become loyal customers. A box in every chapter called “Customer Satisfaction and Quality” demonstrates how these concepts are applied in actual companies.

Managing change. Change in the business or consumer environment can lead to failures like Kodak’s and successes like Apple’s. The Managing Change boxed feature describes how companies have recognized and responded to changes in technology, competition, economic forces, demographics, and culture.

Entrepreneurship and small business management. Because many students will either open their own businesses or go to work for small organizations, entrepreneurship and small business principles are covered throughout the text. Chapter 5, Entrepreneurship: Starting and Managing Your Own Business, delivers interesting discussions on starting and managing a small business and the associated advantages and disadvantages. In addition, a feature called “Catching the Entrepreneurial Spirit” offers practical insights into the challenges and rewards of actually owning and managing a small business.

Global business economy. In Chapter 3, Competing in the Global Marketplace, we discuss why global trade is important to the United States, why nations trade, barriers to international trade, how companies enter the global marketplace, and a host of other international concepts and topics. The Trends section of each chapter frequently includes a discussion of how globalization will affect specific business activities. In addition, our Global Business box demonstrates how businesses are expanding their workforce, products, and customer base throughout the world in order to grow.

Features

Rather than provide a dry recitation of facts, we illustrate concepts with contemporary examples. In addition to the in-text examples, we have several boxed features that provide more extensive examples in areas of importance in today’s business environment. Each of the boxed features described below includes a series of critical thinking questions to prompt the student to consider the implications of each business strategy.

Ethics in Practice. Ethics in Practice features demonstrate how businesses are responsible not only to the bottom line, but to providing goods and services in a responsible manner.

Customer Satisfaction and Quality. Because customer satisfaction and quality are essential to attracting and keeping customers, the Customer Satisfaction and Quality box addresses how these concepts are illustrated and applied in actual companies.

Expanding Around the Globe. Upon entering today’s workplace, you are very likely to conduct business with colleagues, clients, and vendors from around the world. The Expanding Around the Globe feature offers insights into the global economy and highlights the strategies firms take to expand their business and improve their productivity by utilizing global resources.

Managing Change. The turbulent business climate requires companies to adapt their business strategies in response to a variety of economic, social, competitive, and technological forces. The Managing Change feature highlights how businesses have altered their business strategies in response to these forces.

Catching the Entrepreneurial Spirit. This feature highlights the challenges and opportunities available in small businesses and other entrepreneurial ventures.

Activities and cases that put knowledge to work

Introduction to Business helps students develop a solid grounding in the skills that they can apply in the workplace. These skill-building activities and resources help build and polish competencies that future employers will value.

Preparing for tomorrow’s workplace skills and team activities. These activities are designed to help build students’ business skills and to help them practice teamwork. We have developed assignments focused on five important workplace competencies: using and allocating resources, working with others, acquiring and using information, understanding systems, and working with technology. Team activities in every chapter give students an opportunity to work together, building communication skills and interpersonal skills.

Ethics activities. Ethics activities at the end of each chapter present real-world ethical challenges and prompt students to choose the most ethical course of action.

Working the net activities. These activities guide students through a step-by-step analysis of actual e-business practices and give them opportunities to build online research skills.

Creative thinking cases. The Creative Thinking case in each chapter invites students to explore business strategies of various companies, analyze business decisions, and prepare comments.

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Comprehensive instructor’s manual. Each component of the instructor’s manual is designed to provide maximum guidance for delivering the content in an interesting and dynamic manner. The instructor’s manual includes an in-depth lecture outline, which is interspersed with lecture “tidbits” that allow instructors to add timely and interesting enhancements to their lectures. Authored by Linda Hefferin, Elgin Community College.

Test bank. With nearly 2,000 true/false, multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer questions in our test bank, instructors can customize tests to support a variety of course objectives. The test bank is available in Word format. Authored by Amit Shah, Frostburg State University.

PowerPoint lecture slides. The PowerPoint slides provide images and descriptions as a starting place for instructors to build their lectures.

Technology partners

As allies in making high-quality learning materials accessible, our technology partners offer optional low-cost tools that are integrated with OpenStax books. To access the technology options for your text, visit your book page on OpenStax.org.

About the authors

Senior contributing authors

Lawrence J. Gitman, San Diego State University - Emeritus
Lawrence J. Gitman is a prolific author, with over fifty published articles and a number of best-selling college textbooks (some with coauthors). In addition to this book, his works include Personal Financial Planning, Fourteenth Edition (2017), PFIN 6 (2018), Fundamentals of Investing, Thirteenth Edition, (2017), Principles of Managerial Finance, Fourteenth Edition (2015), and Principles of Managerial Finance, Brief, Seventh Edition (2015). His books have been used by more than two million college students. Dr. Gitman is a CFP® and has served as a member of the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards and as an associate editor of several academic journals. He has also served as president of a number of academic organizations, including the Academy of Financial Services, the Midwest Finance Association, and the Financial Management Association National Honor Society. Professor Gitman earned degrees from Purdue University (B.S. in Industrial Management), the University of Dayton (MBA), and the University of Cincinnati (PhD in Finance).

Carl McDaniel, University of Texas, Arlington
Carl McDaniel’s career has spanned more than 40 years, during which he was the recipient of several awards for outstanding teaching. He was the chair of the University of Texas at Arlington marketing department for 32 year, and now teaches executive MBA courses locally and in China. McDaniel’s research has appeared in such publications as the Journal of Marketing, Journal of Business Research, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, and California Management Review. He has also authored over 50 textbooks in marketing and business. He has a bachelor’s degree from the University of Arkansas and a master’s degree and doctorate from Arizona State University.

Amit Shah, Frostburg State University
Amit Shah is professor of management and director of the Center for Community Partnerships at Frostburg State University (FSU) in Maryland. He has over 20 years of experience in industry and academia. Dr. Shah has taught a variety of business courses including management, strategic management, and international business. He has published over 60 referreed articles in various journals and published proceedings and has conducted training for various organizations in the area of business and strategy. In his capacity as Center director, he works with various small-to-medium-size organizations — for profit, nonprofit, and government agencies — in organizing management development workshops and training. He has received several awards including Frostburg State University's Outstanding Faculty Service Award, the FSU College of Business's Outstanding Faculty Research Award, and Outstanding SAM Student Chapter Advisor Award. He has also served as president of the Southeastern Chapters of the Decision Sciences Institute and president of the Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences. When he is not in his classroom or engaged in community service, Dr. Shah enjoys being an entrepreneur serving coffee at Mountain City Coffeehouse and Creamery, which he owns with his wife.

Monique Reece
Monique Reece is the founder and CEO of MarketSmarter, a marketing consulting and training firm that helps companies improve strategy and implement real-time business planning processes to develop a culture of execution. She has more than 20 years of marketing and executive management experience working with both Fortune 100 companies and fast-growing entrepreneurial businesses. Professor Reece formerly served as Executive Vice President at Jones Knowledge and as Director of Global Market Development at Avaya. Monique has served as an Executive Education faculty member at the Daniels College of Business, University of Denver, and as an Adjunct Professor at the Institute for Leadership and Organizational Performance where she taught marketing and customer experience in the Executive MBA program. She has published hundreds of articles and is the author of four books. Monique is also a frequent speaker for industry conferences such as the American Marketing Association and Inc. Magazine.

Linda Koffel, Houston Community College
Linda Koffel has been teaching at Houston Community College. She is a winner of the Consortium of Community Colleges for Innovation, a prestigious NISOD award for teaching.  She taught in the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Small Businesses program; is a certified Ice House Entrepreneurial Program professor; and has her own business.  Linda Koffel played a key role in the design and development of cutting-edge marketing and entrepreneurial curriculum at Houston Community College.

Bethann Talsma, Davenport University and Grand Rapids Community College
Bethann Talsma is the founder of Platinum Properties, an income property business that provides housing in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She has more than 15 years of experience managing all operations including property procurement, tenant interaction, project management, and administration. Under her leadership the business has experienced steady growth and increased profits. Bethann also serves as an adjunct instructor at both Grand Rapids Community College and Davenport University where she teaches general business courses and Microsoft Office applications, bringing real-life examples to the classroom. In addition, Bethann facilitates corporate trainings for Microsoft Office and Google applications.

James C. Hyatt, University of The Cumberlands
Professor Hyatt serves the University of the Cumberlands teaching graduate courses for the School of Computer and Information Sciences, Executive Programs. He has served as an Assistant Professor at Fort Hays State University and Ashford University, where he taught Business, Technology and Analytics Courses. He has published in Business, Technology and Leadership journals and serves on International Committees. Professor Hyatt has extensive experience in Business, Technology and Analytics consulting. Professor Hyatt received his Ph.D. in Information Systems Management from Walden University and also holds degrees from Fort Hays State University and Southern Utah University.

Reviewers

Maria Zak Aria, Camden County College
Joseph H. Atallah, Devry Institute of Technology
Herm Baine, Broward Community College
Dennis R. Brode, Sinclair Community College
Harvey Bronstein, Oakland Community College
Mark Camma, Atlantic Cape Community College
Bonnie R. Chavez, Santa Barbara City College
M. Bixby Cooper, Michigan State University
Linda Davenport Williamson, Klamath Community College
Evelyn Delaney, Daytona Beach Community College
Kathryn E. Dodge, University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Jonas Falik, Queensborough Community College
Janice M. Feldbauer, Austin Community College Northridge
Dennis Foster, Northern Arizona University
James Giles, Bergen Community College
Mary E. Gorman, University of Cincinnati
Gina Hagler
Carnella Hardin, Glendale College
Elizabeth Hastings, Middlesex Community College
Frederic H. Hawkins, Westchester Business Institute
Melvin O. Hawkins, Midlands Technical College
Charlane Bomrad Held, Onondaga Community College
Merrily Joy Hoffman, San Jacinto College
Ralph F. Jagodka, Mount San Antonio College
Andrew Johnson, Bellevue Community College
Connie Johnson, Tampa College
Jerry Kinskey, Sinclair Community College
Raymond T. Lamanna, Berkeley College
Carol Luce, Arizona State University
Tom McFarland, Mt. San Antonio College
Carl Meskimen, Sinclair Community College
Andrew Miller, Hudson Valley Community College
H. Lynn Moretz, Central Piedmont Community College
Linda M. Newell, Saddleback College
Joseph Newton, Bakersfield College
Brandy Nielsen, Great Basin College
David Oliver, Edison College
Teresa Palmer, Illinois State University
Jim Pennypacker
Karli Peterson, Colorado State University
Raymond Pfang, Tarrant County College Connect Campus
Jude A. Rathburn, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
Jodell Raymond Monroe Community College
Robert F. Reck, Western Michigan University
Matthew Rivaldi, San Diego City College
Carol Rowey, Community College of Rhode Island
Ann Squire, Blackhawk Technical College
Carolyn Stevenson, Kaplan University
Richard E. T. Strickler, Sr., McLennan Community College
Linda Tancs
Susan Thompson, Palm Beach Community College
David L. Turnipseed, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
Maria Vitale, Chaffey College
Valerie Wallingford, Bemidji State University
Ron Weidenfeller, Grand Rapids Community College

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