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The traditional 4Ps of marketing: product, price, promotion, and place (distribution), now with packaging added as a key marketing component.
Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation by an identified sponsor.
advertising media
The channels through which advertising is carried to prospective customers; includes newspapers, magazines, radio, television, outdoor advertising, direct mail, social media, and the internet.
Sales representatives of manufacturers and wholesalers.
audience selectivity
An advertising medium’s ability to reach a precisely defined market.
breaking bulk
The process of breaking large shipments of similar products into smaller, more usable lots.
Go-betweens that bring buyers and sellers together.
cost per thousand (CPM)
Cost per thousand contacts is a term used in expressing advertising costs; refers to the cost of reaching 1,000 members of the target market.
distribution (logistics)
Efficiently managing the acquisition of raw materials by the factory and the movement of products from the producer to industrial users and consumers.
distribution channel
The series of marketing entities through which goods and services pass on their way from producers to end users.
E-commerce refers to the development and maintenance of a company’s website and the facilitation of commerce on the website, such as the ability for customers to order products online and other activities.
The number of times an individual is exposed to an advertising message.
industrial distributors
Independent wholesalers that buy related product lines from many manufacturers and sell them to industrial users.
integrated marketing communications (IMC)
The careful coordination of all promotional activities—media advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations, as well as direct marketing, packaging, and other forms of promotion—to produce a consistent, unified message that is customer focused.
A producer; an organization that converts raw materials to finished products.
manufacturers’ representatives
Salespeople who represent noncompeting manufacturers; function as independent agents rather than as salaried employees of the manufacturers.
marketing intermediaries
Organizations that assist in moving goods and services from producers to end users.
merchant wholesaler
An institution that buys goods from manufacturers (takes ownership) and resells them to businesses, government agencies, other wholesalers, or retailers.
personal selling
A face-to-face sales presentation to a prospective customer.
The attempt by marketers to inform, persuade, or remind consumers and industrial users to engage in the exchange process.
promotional mix
The combination of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations used to promote a product.
The process of looking for sales prospects.
public relations
Any communication or activity designed to win goodwill or prestige for a company or person.
Information about a company or product that appears in the news media and is not directly paid for by the company.
qualifying questions
Inquiries used by salespeople to separate prospects from those who do not have the potential to buy.
The number of different target consumers who are exposed to a commercial at least once during a specific period, usually four weeks.
Firms that sell goods to consumers and to industrial users for their own consumption.
sales promotion
Marketing events or sales efforts—not including advertising, personal selling, and public relations—that stimulate buying.
sales prospects
The companies and people who are most likely to buy a seller’s offerings.
social media
A relatively new marketing channel that includes platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Instagram.
Firms that sell finished goods to retailers, manufacturers, and institutions.
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