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assembly process
A production process in which the basic inputs are either combined to create the output or transformed into the output.
bill of material
A list of the items and the number of each required to make a given product.
blockchain technology
Refers to a decentralized “public ledger” of all transactions that have ever been executed. It is constantly expanding, as “completed” blocks are added to the ledger with each new transaction.
business process management (BPM)
A unified system that has the power to integrate and optimize a company’s sprawling functions by automating much of what it does.
CAD/CAM systems
Linked computer systems that combine the advantages of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. The system helps design the product, control the flow of resources needed to produce the product, and operate the production process.
cellular manufacturing
Production technique that uses small, self-contained production units, each performing all or most of the tasks necessary to complete a manufacturing order.
computer-aided design (CAD)
The use of computers to design and test new products and modify existing ones.
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
The use of computers to develop and control the production process.
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
The combination of computerized manufacturing processes (such as robots and flexible manufacturing systems) with other computerized systems that control design, inventory, production, and purchasing.
continuous improvement
A commitment to constantly seek better ways of doing things in order to achieve greater efficiency and improve quality.
continuous process
A production process that uses long production runs lasting days, weeks, or months without equipment shutdowns; generally used for high-volume, low-variety products with standardized parts.
critical path
In a critical path method network, the longest path through the linked activities.
critical path method (CPM)
A scheduling tool that enables a manager to determine the critical path of activities for a project—the activities that will cause the entire project to fall behind schedule if they are not completed on time.
The production of goods or services one at a time according to the specific needs or wants of individual customers.
The process of purchasing supplies and materials online using the internet.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
The electronic exchange of information between two trading partners.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
A computerized resource-planning system that incorporates information about the firm’s suppliers and customers with its internally generated data.
fixed-position layout
A facility arrangement in which the product stays in one place and workers and machinery move to it as needed.
flexible manufacturing system (FMS)
A system that combines automated workstations with computer-controlled transportation devices—automatic guided vehicles (AGV)—that move materials between workstations and into and out of the system.
Gantt charts
Bar graphs plotted on a time line that show the relationship between scheduled and actual production.
intermittent process
A production process that uses short production runs to make batches of different products; generally used for low-volume, high-variety products.
The supply of goods that a firm holds for use in production or for sale to customers.
inventory management
The determination of how much of each type of inventory a firm will keep on hand and the ordering, receiving, storing, and tracking of inventory.
ISO 14000
A set of technical standards designed by the International Organization for Standardization to promote clean production processes to protect the environment.
ISO 9000
A set of five technical standards of quality management created by the International Organization for Standardization to provide a uniform way of determining whether manufacturing plants and service organizations conform to sound quality procedures.
job shop
A manufacturing firm that produces goods in response to customer orders.
just-in-time (JIT)
A system in which materials arrive exactly when they are needed for production, rather than being stored on-site.
lean manufacturing
Streamlining production by eliminating steps in the production process that do not add benefits that customers want.
make-or-buy decision
The determination by a firm of whether to make its own production materials or to buy them from outside sources.
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
An award given to recognize U.S. companies that offer goods and services of world-class quality; established by Congress in 1987 and named for a former secretary of commerce.
manufacturing resource planning II (MRPII)
A complex computerized system that integrates data from many departments to allow managers to more accurately forecast and assess the impact of production plans on profitability.
mass customization
A manufacturing process in which goods are mass-produced up to a point and then custom-tailored to the needs or desires of individual customers.
mass production
The manufacture of many identical goods at once.
materials requirement planning (MRP)
A computerized system of controlling the flow of resources and inventory. A master schedule is used to ensure that the materials, labor, and equipment needed for production are at the right places in the right amounts at the right times.
operations management
Management of the production process.
The purchase of items from an outside source rather than making them internally.
perpetual inventory
A continuously updated list of inventory levels, orders, sales, and receipts.
process layout
A facility arrangement in which work flows according to the production process. All workers performing similar tasks are grouped together, and products pass from one workstation to another.
process manufacturing
A production process in which the basic input is broken down into one or more outputs (products).
product (or assembly-line) layout
A facility arrangement in which workstations or departments are arranged in a line with products moving along the line.
The creation of products and services by turning inputs, such as natural resources, raw materials, human resources, and capital, into outputs, which are products and services.
production planning
The aspect of operations management in which the firm considers the competitive environment and its own strategic goals in an effort to find the best production methods.
production process
The way a good or service is created.
program evaluation and review technique (PERT)
A scheduling tool that is similar to the CPM method but assigns three time estimates for each activity (optimistic, most probable, and pessimistic); allows managers to anticipate delays and potential problems and schedule accordingly.
The process of buying production inputs from various sources; also called procurement.
Goods and services that meet customer expectations by providing reliable performance.
quality control
The process of creating quality standards, producing goods that meet them, and measuring finished goods and services against them.
The technology involved in designing, constructing, and operating computer-controlled machines that can perform tasks independently.
The aspect of production control that involves setting out the work flow—the sequence of machines and operations through which the product or service progresses from start to finish.
The aspect of production control that involves specifying and controlling the time required for each step in the production process.
Six Sigma
A quality-control process that relies on defining what needs to be done to ensure quality, measuring and analyzing production results statistically, and finding ways to improve and control quality.
supply chain
The entire sequence of securing inputs, producing goods, and delivering goods to customers.
supply-chain management
The process of smoothing transitions along the supply chain so that the firm can satisfy its customers with quality products and services; focuses on developing tight bonds with suppliers.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
The use of quality principles in all aspects of a company’s production and operations.
value-stream mapping
Routing technique that uses simple icons to visually represent the flow of materials and information from suppliers through the factory to customers.
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