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mass communication that allows companies to reach a broad audience through TV, radio, newspaper, Internet, magazines, and outdoor ads
image a company promotes and the connotations it fosters of itself and its products
brand advocate
someone who is a fan of your products and passes on the word to others
brand strategy
image a company conveys to its customers
bundle of products that is discounted to encourage customers to buy in bulk
causal research
identification of cause-and effect-relationships between two or more variables
step in the sales process in which the salesperson asks for and gets the sale
conjoint analysis
survey tool in which respondents must rank, choose, or a rate a number of “conjoint,” or linked, features or benefits
cost-led pricing
easiest way to price a product by taking the cost of making the product and marking it up to create profit
customer-led pricing
pricing led by what the customer is willing to pay
digital marketing
online marketing
direct mail
connecting to consumers via email or through printed mailed pieces
entrepreneurial marketing
set of unconventional practices that can help start-ups and younger firms survive in competitive markets
ethnographic research
use of personal observation of the subject by being immersed in the subject’s environment
executive summary
initial section of a business plan document that summarizes the key elements of the entire plan
expeditionary marketing
marketing designed to move established companies and their products into new markets and territories
focus group
gathering of people, typically six to twelve participants, who come together to discuss a topic presented by a moderator, who usually poses questions and collects qualitative data that can be used to answer questions or define research further
guerrilla marketing
creative approaches to marketing that seek to gain maximum exposure through unconventional means
introductory offers
using lower initial prices to attract new customers and build a customer base before prices return to their standard amount
short song or sound that brands a product or company and helps to promote it
loss leader pricing
using a below-standard price to attract customers in the hope that they will purchase other, more profitable goods and services
market analysis
analysis of the overall interest in the product or service within the industry by its target market
market opportunity
unmet need within a target demographic
market research
collection and analysis of data related to a business’s target market
umbrella term given to those activities that companies use to identify consumers and convert them into buyers
marketing mix
basic set of possible strategies and approaches that marketers use to reach their target market
marketing plan
formal business document that used as blueprint for how a company will achieve its marketing and business goals
marketing strategy
company’s game plan for how it will reach consumers and convert them into paying customers
odd numbers strategy
psychological pricing strategy that uses odd numbers in the prices to make a product’s price point more attractive to consumers
penetration pricing
pricing below that of a competitor’s price
company’s human resources
personal selling
using face-to-face interactions to communicate and influence a customer to make a purchase
physical environment
where a service takes place or a product is manufactured
channels or locations—physical or digital—where products can be found by customers
(or value proposition) statement of how you want the customer to perceive your company, good, or service
premium pricing
charging a price above a competitor’s price
value that must be exchanged in order for a customer to receive a product or service
primary research
research that involves gathering new data
chain of procedures and/or activities required to provide the product to the customer
good or a service that creates value by fulfilling a customer need or desire
profit margin
amount by which revenue exceeds costs, typically described as a percent
process of communicating value to customers in a way that encourages them to buy
public relations
marketing that focuses on connecting with constituents by developing goodwill
qualitative research
use of open-ended techniques such as observation, focus groups, and interviews to gain an understanding of customers’ basic reasons, opinions, and motivations
quantitative research
generation of numerical data through techniques such as surveys and questionnaires
real-time marketing
seeks to turn immediately available sales data into actionable and timely strategies that target the shifting landscape of consumer tastes and trends
relationship marketing
creates customer loyalty through personal interaction and strives for long-term engagement
sales promotion
incentives such as coupons and discounts that help attract customers and help them take action
sales strategy
plan that the entrepreneur uses to identify and engage a consumer, from prospecting to securing the sale and beyond
group of people participating in market research
secondary research
research that uses existing data
separating the total population by homogeneous groups of people that have similar tastes, backgrounds, lifestyles, demographics, and culture
serviceable available market (SAM)
portion of the market that a business can serve based on its products, services, and location
situation analysis
examination of the internal and external circumstances relevant to a particular business
high-pricing strategy that leverages the newness of a product in order to “skim” the most profits off the top at the beginning of a sale
social media
online communication tool for entrepreneurs to connect with consumers, especially younger demographics
short and catchy positioning statement that quickly communicate some core aspect of the brand to the consumer
target market
specific group of consumers for which a company seeks to provide a good or service
selecting a customer group based on their ability and willingness to buy
total available market (TAM)
total perceived demand for a product or service within the marketplace
act of verifying that a product can be successful with a target audience
viral marketing
marketing that uses engaging content in the hopes that viewers will share it on their personal and social media networks
word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing
promotion in which a satisfied customer tells others about their positive experience with a good or service
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