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  1. Preface
  2. 1 The Entrepreneurial Perspective
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Entrepreneurship Today
    3. 1.2 Entrepreneurial Vision and Goals
    4. 1.3 The Entrepreneurial Mindset
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  3. 2 The Entrepreneurial Journey and Pathways
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Overview of the Entrepreneurial Journey
    3. 2.2 The Process of Becoming an Entrepreneur
    4. 2.3 Entrepreneurial Pathways
    5. 2.4 Frameworks to Inform Your Entrepreneurial Path
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Discussion Questions
    10. Case Questions
    11. Suggested Resources
  4. 3 The Ethical and Social Responsibilities of Entrepreneurs
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Ethical and Legal Issues in Entrepreneurship
    3. 3.2 Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Entrepreneurship
    4. 3.3 Developing a Workplace Culture of Ethical Excellence and Accountability
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  5. 4 Creativity, Innovation, and Invention
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Tools for Creativity and Innovation
    3. 4.2 Creativity, Innovation, and Invention: How They Differ
    4. 4.3 Developing Ideas, Innovations, and Inventions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  6. 5 Identifying Entrepreneurial Opportunity
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Entrepreneurial Opportunity
    3. 5.2 Researching Potential Business Opportunities
    4. 5.3 Competitive Analysis
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  7. 6 Problem Solving and Need Recognition Techniques
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Problem Solving to Find Entrepreneurial Solutions
    3. 6.2 Creative Problem-Solving Process
    4. 6.3 Design Thinking
    5. 6.4 Lean Processes
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Discussion Questions
    10. Case Questions
    11. Suggested Resources
  8. 7 Telling Your Entrepreneurial Story and Pitching the Idea
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Clarifying Your Vision, Mission, and Goals
    3. 7.2 Sharing Your Entrepreneurial Story
    4. 7.3 Developing Pitches for Various Audiences and Goals
    5. 7.4 Protecting Your Idea and Polishing the Pitch through Feedback
    6. 7.5 Reality Check: Contests and Competitions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Discussion Questions
    11. Case Questions
    12. Suggested Resources
  9. 8 Entrepreneurial Marketing and Sales
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Entrepreneurial Marketing and the Marketing Mix
    3. 8.2 Market Research, Market Opportunity Recognition, and Target Market
    4. 8.3 Marketing Techniques and Tools for Entrepreneurs
    5. 8.4 Entrepreneurial Branding
    6. 8.5 Marketing Strategy and the Marketing Plan
    7. 8.6 Sales and Customer Service
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Discussion Questions
    12. Case Questions
    13. Suggested Resources
  10. 9 Entrepreneurial Finance and Accounting
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Overview of Entrepreneurial Finance and Accounting Strategies
    3. 9.2 Special Funding Strategies
    4. 9.3 Accounting Basics for Entrepreneurs
    5. 9.4 Developing Startup Financial Statements and Projections
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Discussion Questions
    10. Case Questions
    11. Suggested Resources
  11. 10 Launch for Growth to Success
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Launching the Imperfect Business: Lean Startup
    3. 10.2 Why Early Failure Can Lead to Success Later
    4. 10.3 The Challenging Truth about Business Ownership
    5. 10.4 Managing, Following, and Adjusting the Initial Plan
    6. 10.5 Growth: Signs, Pains, and Cautions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Discussion Questions
    11. Case Questions
    12. Suggested Resources
  12. 11 Business Model and Plan
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Avoiding the “Field of Dreams” Approach
    3. 11.2 Designing the Business Model
    4. 11.3 Conducting a Feasibility Analysis
    5. 11.4 The Business Plan
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Discussion Questions
    10. Case Questions
    11. Suggested Resources
  13. 12 Building Networks and Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Building and Connecting to Networks
    3. 12.2 Building the Entrepreneurial Dream Team
    4. 12.3 Designing a Startup Operational Plan
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  14. 13 Business Structure Options: Legal, Tax, and Risk Issues
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Business Structures: Overview of Legal and Tax Considerations
    3. 13.2 Corporations
    4. 13.3 Partnerships and Joint Ventures
    5. 13.4 Limited Liability Companies
    6. 13.5 Sole Proprietorships
    7. 13.6 Additional Considerations: Capital Acquisition, Business Domicile, and Technology
    8. 13.7 Mitigating and Managing Risks
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Discussion Questions
    13. Case Questions
    14. Suggested Resources
  15. 14 Fundamentals of Resource Planning
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Types of Resources
    3. 14.2 Using the PEST Framework to Assess Resource Needs
    4. 14.3 Managing Resources over the Venture Life Cycle
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Review Questions
    8. Discussion Questions
    9. Case Questions
    10. Suggested Resources
  16. 15 Next Steps
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 Launching Your Venture
    3. 15.2 Making Difficult Business Decisions in Response to Challenges
    4. 15.3 Seeking Help or Support
    5. 15.4 Now What? Serving as a Mentor, Consultant, or Champion
    6. 15.5 Reflections: Documenting the Journey
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Discussion Questions
    11. Case Questions
    12. Suggested Resources
  17. A | Suggested Resources
  18. Index
advertising
mass communication that allows companies to reach a broad audience through TV, radio, newspaper, Internet, magazines, and outdoor ads
brand
image a company promotes and the connotations it fosters of itself and its products
brand advocate
someone who is a fan of your products and passes on the word to others
brand strategy
image a company conveys to its customers
bundling
bundle of products that is discounted to encourage customers to buy in bulk
causal research
identification of cause-and effect-relationships between two or more variables
close
step in the sales process in which the salesperson asks for and gets the sale
conjoint analysis
survey tool in which respondents must rank, choose, or a rate a number of “conjoint,” or linked, features or benefits
cost-led pricing
easiest way to price a product by taking the cost of making the product and marking it up to create profit
customer-led pricing
pricing led by what the customer is willing to pay
digital marketing
online marketing
direct mail
connecting to consumers via email or through printed mailed pieces
entrepreneurial marketing
set of unconventional practices that can help start-ups and younger firms survive in competitive markets
ethnographic research
use of personal observation of the subject by being immersed in the subject’s environment
executive summary
initial section of a business plan document that summarizes the key elements of the entire plan
expeditionary marketing
marketing designed to move established companies and their products into new markets and territories
focus group
gathering of people, typically six to twelve participants, who come together to discuss a topic presented by a moderator, who usually poses questions and collects qualitative data that can be used to answer questions or define research further
guerrilla marketing
creative approaches to marketing that seek to gain maximum exposure through unconventional means
introductory offers
using lower initial prices to attract new customers and build a customer base before prices return to their standard amount
jingle
short song or sound that brands a product or company and helps to promote it
loss leader pricing
using a below-standard price to attract customers in the hope that they will purchase other, more profitable goods and services
market analysis
analysis of the overall interest in the product or service within the industry by its target market
market opportunity
unmet need within a target demographic
market research
collection and analysis of data related to a business’s target market
marketing
umbrella term given to those activities that companies use to identify consumers and convert them into buyers
marketing mix
basic set of possible strategies and approaches that marketers use to reach their target market
marketing plan
formal business document that used as blueprint for how a company will achieve its marketing and business goals
marketing strategy
company’s game plan for how it will reach consumers and convert them into paying customers
odd numbers strategy
psychological pricing strategy that uses odd numbers in the prices to make a product’s price point more attractive to consumers
penetration pricing
pricing below that of a competitor’s price
people
company’s human resources
personal selling
using face-to-face interactions to communicate and influence a customer to make a purchase
physical environment
where a service takes place or a product is manufactured
place
channels or locations—physical or digital—where products can be found by customers
positioning
(or value proposition) statement of how you want the customer to perceive your company, good, or service
premium pricing
charging a price above a competitor’s price
price
value that must be exchanged in order for a customer to receive a product or service
primary research
research that involves gathering new data
process
chain of procedures and/or activities required to provide the product to the customer
product
good or a service that creates value by fulfilling a customer need or desire
profit margin
amount by which revenue exceeds costs, typically described as a percent
promotion
process of communicating value to customers in a way that encourages them to buy
public relations
marketing that focuses on connecting with constituents by developing goodwill
qualitative research
use of open-ended techniques such as observation, focus groups, and interviews to gain an understanding of customers’ basic reasons, opinions, and motivations
quantitative research
generation of numerical data through techniques such as surveys and questionnaires
real-time marketing
seeks to turn immediately available sales data into actionable and timely strategies that target the shifting landscape of consumer tastes and trends
relationship marketing
creates customer loyalty through personal interaction and strives for long-term engagement
sales promotion
incentives such as coupons and discounts that help attract customers and help them take action
sales strategy
plan that the entrepreneur uses to identify and engage a consumer, from prospecting to securing the sale and beyond
sample
group of people participating in market research
secondary research
research that uses existing data
segmenting
separating the total population by homogeneous groups of people that have similar tastes, backgrounds, lifestyles, demographics, and culture
serviceable available market (SAM)
portion of the market that a business can serve based on its products, services, and location
situation analysis
examination of the internal and external circumstances relevant to a particular business
skimming
high-pricing strategy that leverages the newness of a product in order to “skim” the most profits off the top at the beginning of a sale
social media
online communication tool for entrepreneurs to connect with consumers, especially younger demographics
tagline
short and catchy positioning statement that quickly communicate some core aspect of the brand to the consumer
target market
specific group of consumers for which a company seeks to provide a good or service
targeting
selecting a customer group based on their ability and willingness to buy
total available market (TAM)
total perceived demand for a product or service within the marketplace
validation
act of verifying that a product can be successful with a target audience
viral marketing
marketing that uses engaging content in the hopes that viewers will share it on their personal and social media networks
word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing
promotion in which a satisfied customer tells others about their positive experience with a good or service
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