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Elementary Algebra 2e

1.4 Multiply and Divide Integers

Elementary Algebra 2e1.4 Multiply and Divide Integers
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Foundations
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Introduction to Whole Numbers
    3. 1.2 Use the Language of Algebra
    4. 1.3 Add and Subtract Integers
    5. 1.4 Multiply and Divide Integers
    6. 1.5 Visualize Fractions
    7. 1.6 Add and Subtract Fractions
    8. 1.7 Decimals
    9. 1.8 The Real Numbers
    10. 1.9 Properties of Real Numbers
    11. 1.10 Systems of Measurement
    12. Key Terms
    13. Key Concepts
    14. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Solving Linear Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Solve Equations Using the Subtraction and Addition Properties of Equality
    3. 2.2 Solve Equations using the Division and Multiplication Properties of Equality
    4. 2.3 Solve Equations with Variables and Constants on Both Sides
    5. 2.4 Use a General Strategy to Solve Linear Equations
    6. 2.5 Solve Equations with Fractions or Decimals
    7. 2.6 Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable
    8. 2.7 Solve Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Math Models
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Use a Problem-Solving Strategy
    3. 3.2 Solve Percent Applications
    4. 3.3 Solve Mixture Applications
    5. 3.4 Solve Geometry Applications: Triangles, Rectangles, and the Pythagorean Theorem
    6. 3.5 Solve Uniform Motion Applications
    7. 3.6 Solve Applications with Linear Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Graphs
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Use the Rectangular Coordinate System
    3. 4.2 Graph Linear Equations in Two Variables
    4. 4.3 Graph with Intercepts
    5. 4.4 Understand Slope of a Line
    6. 4.5 Use the Slope-Intercept Form of an Equation of a Line
    7. 4.6 Find the Equation of a Line
    8. 4.7 Graphs of Linear Inequalities
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Systems of Linear Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Solve Systems of Equations by Graphing
    3. 5.2 Solving Systems of Equations by Substitution
    4. 5.3 Solve Systems of Equations by Elimination
    5. 5.4 Solve Applications with Systems of Equations
    6. 5.5 Solve Mixture Applications with Systems of Equations
    7. 5.6 Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Polynomials
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Add and Subtract Polynomials
    3. 6.2 Use Multiplication Properties of Exponents
    4. 6.3 Multiply Polynomials
    5. 6.4 Special Products
    6. 6.5 Divide Monomials
    7. 6.6 Divide Polynomials
    8. 6.7 Integer Exponents and Scientific Notation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Factoring
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Greatest Common Factor and Factor by Grouping
    3. 7.2 Factor Trinomials of the Form x2+bx+c
    4. 7.3 Factor Trinomials of the Form ax2+bx+c
    5. 7.4 Factor Special Products
    6. 7.5 General Strategy for Factoring Polynomials
    7. 7.6 Quadratic Equations
    8. Key Terms
    9. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Rational Expressions and Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Simplify Rational Expressions
    3. 8.2 Multiply and Divide Rational Expressions
    4. 8.3 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions with a Common Denominator
    5. 8.4 Add and Subtract Rational Expressions with Unlike Denominators
    6. 8.5 Simplify Complex Rational Expressions
    7. 8.6 Solve Rational Equations
    8. 8.7 Solve Proportion and Similar Figure Applications
    9. 8.8 Solve Uniform Motion and Work Applications
    10. 8.9 Use Direct and Inverse Variation
    11. Key Terms
    12. Key Concepts
    13. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Roots and Radicals
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Simplify and Use Square Roots
    3. 9.2 Simplify Square Roots
    4. 9.3 Add and Subtract Square Roots
    5. 9.4 Multiply Square Roots
    6. 9.5 Divide Square Roots
    7. 9.6 Solve Equations with Square Roots
    8. 9.7 Higher Roots
    9. 9.8 Rational Exponents
    10. Key Terms
    11. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Quadratic Equations
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Square Root Property
    3. 10.2 Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square
    4. 10.3 Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Formula
    5. 10.4 Solve Applications Modeled by Quadratic Equations
    6. 10.5 Graphing Quadratic Equations in Two Variables
    7. Key Terms
    8. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
  13. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Multiply integers
  • Divide integers
  • Simplify expressions with integers
  • Evaluate variable expressions with integers
  • Translate English phrases to algebraic expressions
  • Use integers in applications
Be Prepared 1.4

A more thorough introduction to the topics covered in this section can be found in the Prealgebra chapter, Integers.

Multiply Integers

Since multiplication is mathematical shorthand for repeated addition, our model can easily be applied to show multiplication of integers. Let’s look at this concrete model to see what patterns we notice. We will use the same examples that we used for addition and subtraction. Here, we will use the model just to help us discover the pattern.

We remember that a·ba·b means add a, b times. Here, we are using the model just to help us discover the pattern.

Two images are shown side-by-side. The image on the left has the equation five times three at the top. Below this it reads “add 5, 3 times.” Below this depicts three rows of blue counters, with five counters in each row. Under this, it says “15 positives.” Under thisis the equation“5 times 3 equals 15.” The image on the right reads “negative 5 times three. The three is in parentheses. Below this it reads, “add negative five, three times.” Under this are fifteen red counters in three rows of five. Below this it reads” “15 negatives”. Below this is the equation negative five times 3 equals negative 15.”

The next two examples are more interesting.

What does it mean to multiply 5 by −3?−3? It means subtract 5, 3 times. Looking at subtraction as “taking away,” it means to take away 5, 3 times. But there is nothing to take away, so we start by adding neutral pairs on the workspace. Then we take away 5 three times.

This figure has two columns. In the top row, the left column contains the expression 5 times negative 3. This means take away 5, three times. Below this, there are three groups of five red negative counters, and below each group of red counters is an identical group of five blue positive counters. What are left are fifteen negatives, represented by 15 red counters. Underneath the counters is the equation 5 times negative 3 equals negative 15. In the top row, the right column contains the expression negative 5 times negative 3. This means take away negative 5, three times. Below this, there are three groups of five blue positive counters, and below each group of blue counters is an identical group of five red negative counters. What are left are fifteen positives, represented by 15 blue counters. Underneath the blue counters is the equation negative 5 times negative 3 equals 15.

In summary:

5·3=15−5(3)=−155(−3)=−15(−5)(−3)=155·3=15−5(3)=−155(−3)=−15(−5)(−3)=15

Notice that for multiplication of two signed numbers, when the:

  • signs are the same, the product is positive.
  • signs are different, the product is negative.

We’ll put this all together in the chart below.

Multiplication of Signed Numbers

For multiplication of two signed numbers:

Same signs Product Example
Two positives
Two negatives
Positive
Positive
7·4=28−8(−6)=487·4=28−8(−6)=48
Different signs Product Example
Positive · negative
Negative · positive
Negative
Negative
7(−9)=−63−5·10=−507(−9)=−63−5·10=−50

Example 1.46

Multiply: −9·3−9·3 −2(−5)−2(−5) 4(−8)4(−8) 7·6.7·6.

Try It 1.91

Multiply: −6·8−6·8 −4(−7)−4(−7) 9(−7)9(−7) 5·12.5·12.

Try It 1.92

Multiply: −8·7−8·7 −6(−9)−6(−9) 7(−4)7(−4) 3·13.3·13.

When we multiply a number by 1, the result is the same number. What happens when we multiply a number by −1?−1? Let’s multiply a positive number and then a negative number by −1−1 to see what we get.

−1·4−1(−3)Multiply.−43−4is the opposite of4.3is the opposite of−3.−1·4−1(−3)Multiply.−43−4is the opposite of4.3is the opposite of−3.

Each time we multiply a number by −1,−1, we get its opposite!

Multiplication by −1−1

−1a=a−1a=a

Multiplying a number by −1−1 gives its opposite.

Example 1.47

Multiply: −1·7−1·7 −1(−11).−1(−11).

Try It 1.93

Multiply: −1·9−1·9 −1·(−17).−1·(−17).

Try It 1.94

Multiply: −1·8−1·8 −1·(−16).−1·(−16).

Divide Integers

What about division? Division is the inverse operation of multiplication. So, 15÷3=515÷3=5 because 5·3=15.5·3=15. In words, this expression says that 15 can be divided into three groups of five each because adding five three times gives 15. Look at some examples of multiplying integers, to figure out the rules for dividing integers.

5·3=15so15÷3=5−5(3)=−15so−15÷3=−5(−5)(−3)=15so15÷(−3)=−55(−3)=−15so−15÷(−3)=55·3=15so15÷3=5−5(3)=−15so−15÷3=−5(−5)(−3)=15so15÷(−3)=−55(−3)=−15so−15÷(−3)=5

Division follows the same rules as multiplication!

For division of two signed numbers, when the:

  • signs are the same, the quotient is positive.
  • signs are different, the quotient is negative.

And remember that we can always check the answer of a division problem by multiplying.

Multiplication and Division of Signed Numbers

For multiplication and division of two signed numbers:

  • If the signs are the same, the result is positive.
  • If the signs are different, the result is negative.
Same signs Result
Two positives
Two negatives
Positive
Positive
If the signs are the same, the result is positive.
Different signs Result
Positive and negative
Negative and positive
Negative
Negative
If the signs are different, the result is negative.

Example 1.48

Divide: −27÷3−27÷3 −100÷(−4).−100÷(−4).

Try It 1.95

Divide: −42÷6−42÷6 −117÷(−3).−117÷(−3).

Try It 1.96

Divide: −63÷7−63÷7 −115÷(−5).−115÷(−5).

Simplify Expressions with Integers

What happens when there are more than two numbers in an expression? The order of operations still applies when negatives are included. Remember My Dear Aunt Sally?

Let’s try some examples. We’ll simplify expressions that use all four operations with integers—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Remember to follow the order of operations.

Example 1.49

Simplify: 7(−2)+4(−7)6.7(−2)+4(−7)6.

Try It 1.97

Simplify: 8(−3)+5(−7)4.8(−3)+5(−7)4.

Try It 1.98

Simplify: 9(−3)+7(−8)1.9(−3)+7(−8)1.

Example 1.50

Simplify: (−2)4(−2)4 24.24.

Try It 1.99

Simplify: (−3)4(−3)4 34.34.

Try It 1.100

Simplify: (−7)2(−7)2 72.72.

The next example reminds us to simplify inside parentheses first.

Example 1.51

Simplify: 123(912).123(912).

Try It 1.101

Simplify: 174(811).174(811).

Try It 1.102

Simplify: 166(713).166(713).

Example 1.52

Simplify: 8(−9)÷(−2)3.8(−9)÷(−2)3.

Try It 1.103

Simplify: 12(−9)÷(−3)3.12(−9)÷(−3)3.

Try It 1.104

Simplify: 18(−4)÷(−2)3.18(−4)÷(−2)3.

Example 1.53

Simplify: −30÷2+(−3)(−7).−30÷2+(−3)(−7).

Try It 1.105

Simplify: −27÷3+(−5)(−6).−27÷3+(−5)(−6).

Try It 1.106

Simplify: −32÷4+(−2)(−7).−32÷4+(−2)(−7).

Evaluate Variable Expressions with Integers

Remember that to evaluate an expression means to substitute a number for the variable in the expression. Now we can use negative numbers as well as positive numbers.

Example 1.54

When n=−5,n=−5, evaluate: n+1n+1 n+1.n+1.

Try It 1.107

When n=−8,n=−8, evaluate n+2n+2 n+2.n+2.

Try It 1.108

When y=−9,y=−9, evaluate y+8y+8 y+8.y+8.

Example 1.55

Evaluate (x+y)2(x+y)2 when x=−18x=−18 and y=24.y=24.

Try It 1.109

Evaluate (x+y)2(x+y)2 when x=−15x=−15 and y=29.y=29.

Try It 1.110

Evaluate (x+y)3(x+y)3 when x=−8x=−8 and y=10.y=10.

Example 1.56

Evaluate 20z20z when z=12z=12 and z=−12.z=−12.

Try It 1.111

Evaluate: 17k17k when k=19k=19 and k=−19.k=−19.

Try It 1.112

Evaluate: −5b−5b when b=14b=14 and b=−14.b=−14.

Example 1.57

Evaluate: 2x2+3x+82x2+3x+8 when x=4.x=4.

Try It 1.113

Evaluate: 3x22x+63x22x+6 when x=−3.x=−3.

Try It 1.114

Evaluate: 4x2x54x2x5 when x=−2.x=−2.

Translate Phrases to Expressions with Integers

Our earlier work translating English to algebra also applies to phrases that include both positive and negative numbers.

Example 1.58

Translate and simplify: the sum of 8 and −12,−12, increased by 3.

Try It 1.115

Translate and simplify the sum of 9 and −16,−16, increased by 4.

Try It 1.116

Translate and simplify the sum of −8−8 and −12,−12, increased by 7.

When we first introduced the operation symbols, we saw that the expression may be read in several ways. They are listed in the chart below.

abab
aa minus bb
the difference of aa and bb
bb subtracted from aa
bb less than aa

Be careful to get a and b in the right order!

Example 1.59

Translate and then simplify the difference of 13 and −21−21 subtract 24 from −19.−19.

Try It 1.117

Translate and simplify the difference of 14 and −23−23 subtract 21 from −17.−17.

Try It 1.118

Translate and simplify the difference of 11 and −19−19 subtract 18 from −11.−11.

Once again, our prior work translating English to algebra transfers to phrases that include both multiplying and dividing integers. Remember that the key word for multiplication is “product” and for division is “quotient.”

Example 1.60

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the product of −2−2 and 14.

Try It 1.119

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the product of −5−5 and 12.

Try It 1.120

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the product of 8 and −13.−13.

Example 1.61

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the quotient of −56−56 and −7.−7.

Try It 1.121

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the quotient of −63−63 and −9.−9.

Try It 1.122

Translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible: the quotient of −72−72 and −9.−9.

Use Integers in Applications

We’ll outline a plan to solve applications. It’s hard to find something if we don’t know what we’re looking for or what to call it! So when we solve an application, we first need to determine what the problem is asking us to find. Then we’ll write a phrase that gives the information to find it. We’ll translate the phrase into an expression and then simplify the expression to get the answer. Finally, we summarize the answer in a sentence to make sure it makes sense.

Example 1.62

How to Apply a Strategy to Solve Applications with Integers

In the morning, the temperature in Urbana, Illinois was 11 degrees. By mid-afternoon, the temperature had dropped to −9−9 degrees. What was the difference of the morning and afternoon temperatures?

Try It 1.123

In the morning, the temperature in Anchorage, Alaska was 15 degrees. By mid-afternoon the temperature had dropped to 30 degrees below zero. What was the difference in the morning and afternoon temperatures?

Try It 1.124

The temperature in Denver was −6−6 degrees at lunchtime. By sunset the temperature had dropped to −15−15 degrees. What was the difference in the lunchtime and sunset temperatures?

How To

Apply a Strategy to Solve Applications with Integers.

  1. Step 1. Read the problem. Make sure all the words and ideas are understood
  2. Step 2. Identify what we are asked to find.
  3. Step 3. Write a phrase that gives the information to find it.
  4. Step 4. Translate the phrase to an expression.
  5. Step 5. Simplify the expression.
  6. Step 6. Answer the question with a complete sentence.

Example 1.63

The Mustangs football team received three penalties in the third quarter. Each penalty gave them a loss of fifteen yards. What is the number of yards lost?

Try It 1.125

The Bears played poorly and had seven penalties in the game. Each penalty resulted in a loss of 15 yards. What is the number of yards lost due to penalties?

Try It 1.126

Bill uses the ATM on campus because it is convenient. However, each time he uses it he is charged a $2 fee. Last month he used the ATM eight times. How much was his total fee for using the ATM?

Section 1.4 Exercises

Practice Makes Perfect

Multiply Integers

In the following exercises, multiply.

265.

−4·8−4·8

266.

−3·9−3·9

267.

9(−7)9(−7)

268.

13(−5)13(−5)

269.

−1.6−1.6

270.

−1.3−1.3

271.

−1(−14)−1(−14)

272.

−1(−19)−1(−19)

Divide Integers

In the following exercises, divide.

273.

−24÷6−24÷6

274.

35÷(−7)35÷(−7)

275.

−52÷(−4)−52÷(−4)

276.

−84÷(−6)−84÷(−6)

277.

−180÷15−180÷15

278.

−192÷12−192÷12

Simplify Expressions with Integers

In the following exercises, simplify each expression.

279.

5(−6)+7(−2)35(−6)+7(−2)3

280.

8(−4)+5(−4)68(−4)+5(−4)6

281.

(−2)6(−2)6

282.

(−3)5(−3)5

283.

4242

284.

6262

285.

−3(−5)(6)−3(−5)(6)

286.

−4(−6)(3)−4(−6)(3)

287.

(811)(912)(811)(912)

288.

(611)(813)(611)(813)

289.

263(27)263(27)

290.

232(46)232(46)

291.

65÷(−5)+(−28)÷(−7)65÷(−5)+(−28)÷(−7)

292.

52÷(−4)+(−32)÷(−8)52÷(−4)+(−32)÷(−8)

293.

92[38(−2)]92[38(−2)]

294.

113[74(−2)]113[74(−2)]

295.

(−3)224÷(82)(−3)224÷(82)

296.

(−4)232÷(124)(−4)232÷(124)

Evaluate Variable Expressions with Integers

In the following exercises, evaluate each expression.

297.

y+(−14)y+(−14) when y=−33y=−33 y=30y=30

298.

x+(−21)x+(−21) when x=−27x=−27 x=44x=44

299.
  1. a+3a+3 when a=−7a=−7
  2. a+3a+3 when a=−7a=−7
300.
  1. d+(−9)d+(−9) when d=−8d=−8
  2. d+(−9)d+(−9) when d=−8d=−8
301.

m+nm+n when
m=−15,n=7m=−15,n=7

302.

p+qp+q when
p=−9,q=17p=−9,q=17

303.

r+sr+s when r=−9,s=−7r=−9,s=−7

304.

t+ut+u when t=−6,u=−5t=−6,u=−5

305.

(x+y)2(x+y)2 when
x=−3,y=14x=−3,y=14

306.

(y+z)2(y+z)2 when
y=−3,z=15y=−3,z=15

307.

−2x+17−2x+17 when

  1. x=8x=8
  2. x=−8x=−8
308.

−5y+14−5y+14 when
y=9y=9
y=−9y=−9

309.

103m103m when
m=5m=5
m=−5m=−5

310.

184n184n when
n=3n=3
n=−3n=−3

311.

2w23w+72w23w+7 when
w=−2w=−2

312.

3u24u+53u24u+5 when u=−3u=−3

313.

9a2b89a2b8 when
a=−6andb=−3a=−6andb=−3

314.

7m4n27m4n2 when
m=−4andn=−9m=−4andn=−9

Translate English Phrases to Algebraic Expressions

In the following exercises, translate to an algebraic expression and simplify if possible.

315.

the sum of 3 and −15,−15, increased by 7

316.

the sum of −8−8 and −9,−9, increased by 23

317.

the difference of 10 and −18−18

318.

subtract 11 from −25−25

319.

the difference of −5−5 and −30−30

320.

subtract −6−6 from −13−13

321.

the product of −3 and 15−3 and 15

322.

the product of −4 and 16−4 and 16

323.

the quotient of −60−60 and −20−20

324.

the quotient of −40−40 and −20−20

325.

the quotient of −6−6 and the sum of a and b

326.

the quotient of −7−7 and the sum of m and n

327.

the product of −10−10 and the difference of pandqpandq

328.

the product of −13−13 and the difference of canddcandd

Use Integers in Applications

In the following exercises, solve.

329.

Temperature On January 15,15, the high temperature in Anaheim, California, was 84°.84°. That same day, the high temperature in Embarrass, Minnesota was −12°.−12°. What was the difference between the temperature in Anaheim and the temperature in Embarrass?

330.

Temperature On January 21,21, the high temperature in Palm Springs, California, was 89°,89°, and the high temperature in Whitefield, New Hampshire was −31°.−31°. What was the difference between the temperature in Palm Springs and the temperature in Whitefield?

331.

Football On the first down, the Chargers had the ball on their 25-yard line. They lost 6 yards on the first-down play, gained 10 yards on the second-down play, and lost 8 yards on the third-down play. What was the yard line at the end of the third-down play?

332.

Football On first down, the Steelers had the ball on their 30-yard line. They gained 9 yards on the first-down play, lost 14 yards on the second-down play, and lost 2 yards on the third-down play. What was the yard line at the end of the third-down play?

333.

Checking Account Mayra has $124 in her checking account. She writes a check for $152. What is the new balance in her checking account?

334.

Checking Account Selina has $165 in her checking account. She writes a check for $207. What is the new balance in her checking account?

335.

Checking Account Diontre has a balance of $38$38 in his checking account. He deposits $225 to the account. What is the new balance?

336.

Checking Account Reymonte has a balance of $49$49 in his checking account. He deposits $281 to the account. What is the new balance?

Everyday Math

337.

Stock market Javier owns 300 shares of stock in one company. On Tuesday, the stock price dropped $12 per share. What was the total effect on Javier’s portfolio?

338.

Weight loss In the first week of a diet program, eight women lost an average of 3 pounds each. What was the total weight change for the eight women?

Writing Exercises

339.

In your own words, state the rules for multiplying integers.

340.

In your own words, state the rules for dividing integers.

341.

Why is 24(−2)4?24(−2)4?

342.

Why is 43=(−4)3?43=(−4)3?

Self Check

After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

A table is shown that is composed of four columns and seven rows. The titles of the columns are “I can …”, “Confidently”, “With some help” and “No – I don’t get it!”. The first column reads “multiple integers.”, “divide integers.”, “simplify expressions with integers.”, “evaluate variable expressions with integers.”, “translate English phrases to algebraic expressions.” and “use integers in applications.”

On a scale of 1–10, how would you rate your mastery of this section in light of your responses on the checklist? How can you improve this?

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