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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sets
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Basic Set Concepts
    3. 1.2 Subsets
    4. 1.3 Understanding Venn Diagrams
    5. 1.4 Set Operations with Two Sets
    6. 1.5 Set Operations with Three Sets
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  3. 2 Logic
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Statements and Quantifiers
    3. 2.2 Compound Statements
    4. 2.3 Constructing Truth Tables
    5. 2.4 Truth Tables for the Conditional and Biconditional
    6. 2.5 Equivalent Statements
    7. 2.6 De Morgan’s Laws
    8. 2.7 Logical Arguments
    9. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  4. 3 Real Number Systems and Number Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Prime and Composite Numbers
    3. 3.2 The Integers
    4. 3.3 Order of Operations
    5. 3.4 Rational Numbers
    6. 3.5 Irrational Numbers
    7. 3.6 Real Numbers
    8. 3.7 Clock Arithmetic
    9. 3.8 Exponents
    10. 3.9 Scientific Notation
    11. 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences
    12. 3.11 Geometric Sequences
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  5. 4 Number Representation and Calculation
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Hindu-Arabic Positional System
    3. 4.2 Early Numeration Systems
    4. 4.3 Converting with Base Systems
    5. 4.4 Addition and Subtraction in Base Systems
    6. 4.5 Multiplication and Division in Base Systems
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  6. 5 Algebra
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Algebraic Expressions
    3. 5.2 Linear Equations in One Variable with Applications
    4. 5.3 Linear Inequalities in One Variable with Applications
    5. 5.4 Ratios and Proportions
    6. 5.5 Graphing Linear Equations and Inequalities
    7. 5.6 Quadratic Equations with Two Variables with Applications
    8. 5.7 Functions
    9. 5.8 Graphing Functions
    10. 5.9 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables
    11. 5.10 Systems of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    12. 5.11 Linear Programming
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  7. 6 Money Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Understanding Percent
    3. 6.2 Discounts, Markups, and Sales Tax
    4. 6.3 Simple Interest
    5. 6.4 Compound Interest
    6. 6.5 Making a Personal Budget
    7. 6.6 Methods of Savings
    8. 6.7 Investments
    9. 6.8 The Basics of Loans
    10. 6.9 Understanding Student Loans
    11. 6.10 Credit Cards
    12. 6.11 Buying or Leasing a Car
    13. 6.12 Renting and Homeownership
    14. 6.13 Income Tax
    15. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  8. 7 Probability
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Multiplication Rule for Counting
    3. 7.2 Permutations
    4. 7.3 Combinations
    5. 7.4 Tree Diagrams, Tables, and Outcomes
    6. 7.5 Basic Concepts of Probability
    7. 7.6 Probability with Permutations and Combinations
    8. 7.7 What Are the Odds?
    9. 7.8 The Addition Rule for Probability
    10. 7.9 Conditional Probability and the Multiplication Rule
    11. 7.10 The Binomial Distribution
    12. 7.11 Expected Value
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  9. 8 Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gathering and Organizing Data
    3. 8.2 Visualizing Data
    4. 8.3 Mean, Median and Mode
    5. 8.4 Range and Standard Deviation
    6. 8.5 Percentiles
    7. 8.6 The Normal Distribution
    8. 8.7 Applications of the Normal Distribution
    9. 8.8 Scatter Plots, Correlation, and Regression Lines
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  10. 9 Metric Measurement
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 The Metric System
    3. 9.2 Measuring Area
    4. 9.3 Measuring Volume
    5. 9.4 Measuring Weight
    6. 9.5 Measuring Temperature
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  11. 10 Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Points, Lines, and Planes
    3. 10.2 Angles
    4. 10.3 Triangles
    5. 10.4 Polygons, Perimeter, and Circumference
    6. 10.5 Tessellations
    7. 10.6 Area
    8. 10.7 Volume and Surface Area
    9. 10.8 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  12. 11 Voting and Apportionment
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Voting Methods
    3. 11.2 Fairness in Voting Methods
    4. 11.3 Standard Divisors, Standard Quotas, and the Apportionment Problem
    5. 11.4 Apportionment Methods
    6. 11.5 Fairness in Apportionment Methods
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  13. 12 Graph Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Graph Basics
    3. 12.2 Graph Structures
    4. 12.3 Comparing Graphs
    5. 12.4 Navigating Graphs
    6. 12.5 Euler Circuits
    7. 12.6 Euler Trails
    8. 12.7 Hamilton Cycles
    9. 12.8 Hamilton Paths
    10. 12.9 Traveling Salesperson Problem
    11. 12.10 Trees
    12. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  14. 13 Math and...
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Math and Art
    3. 13.2 Math and the Environment
    4. 13.3 Math and Medicine
    5. 13.4 Math and Music
    6. 13.5 Math and Sports
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  15. A | Co-Req Appendix: Integer Powers of 10
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  17. Index

Projects

Encryption began at least as far back as the Roman Empire. During the reign of Caesar, a particular cypher was used, fittingly named the Caesar Cypher. This encryption process granted the Romans a great tactical advantage. Even if a message was intercepted, it would not make sense to the person intercepting the message.

Find four instances when encryption was used and cracked over the course of history.

The Golden Ratio in Art and Architecture

The golden ratio has been used in art and architecture as far back as ancient Greece (possibly further). It also appears in South America (Incan architecture). Find five instances of the use of the golden ratio in art or architecture and describe its use in each of those instances.

Your Budget

Budgeting either is, or will shortly be, an important aspect of your life. Managing money well reduces stress in your life, and provides space for planning for future expenses, such as vacations or home improvements.

Imagine your life 10 years from now. Estimate your monthly income. Identify expenses you will encounter monthly (mortgage or rent, car payment, insurance, entertainment, etc.). Decide on an amount you plan to save monthly (this is treated as an expense). Create a spreadsheet with those values. Record your monthly net income (your income minus your expenses). Determine how much money you will have saved over the course of 5 years (ignore interest). Write a reflection on your anticipated financial health.

Estimating Pi

The value of pi is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of the circle. It is also equal to the ratio of the area of the circle to the square of the radius of the square.

Research three ways to physically estimate pi.

Estimate pi using all three processes you found.

Present your process and solutions in class.

Design Your Own Shift Cypher

A cypher is a message written in such a way as to mask its contents. Changing a message into its cypher form is called encryption. Decryption or deciphering is the process of changing a cyphertext message back into the original (legible) message. One process of encryption is to scramble the letters, symbols, and punctuation of a message according to a mathematical rule. One rule that could be used for such a cypher is addition in a chosen modulus. In this project, you will create such a cypher, encrypt a message, and then decrypt the message.

Step 1: Choose the letters, symbols, and punctuation marks you want to allow in your messages. This should include at least the uppercase letters and a space character. This is your character set.

Step 2: Count the number of characters you will use. Label this number nn.

Step 3: Pair each character of your character set an integer from 0 to (n1)(n1). Do not assign more than one character to an integer.

Step 4: Choose an integer between 1 and (n1)(n1). This will be the number used to create the cypher. Label this number ss.

Step 5: Write a message using your character set.

Step 6: Replace every character in your message by the integer with which it was paired in Step 3.

Step 7: For every number, xx, from Step 7, perform the addition x+sx+s (mod nn).

Step 8: Replace every number found in Step 7 with the character with which it was paired in Step 3. This is your cyphertext.

To decrypt your cyphertext, reverse the steps above.

Step 1: Replace the cyphertext characters with the paired values.

Step 2: For each value xx, perform the subtraction xsxs (mod nn).

Step 3: Replace the numbers from Step 2 with their paired characters from the character set.

The message is then deciphered.

Design Your Own Cypher Using Multiplication

A cypher is a message written in such a way as to mask its contents. Changing a message into its cypher form is called encryption. Decryption or deciphering is the process of changing a cyphertext message back into the original (legible) message. One process of encryption is to scramble the letters, symbols, and punctuation of a message according to a mathematical rule. One rule that could be used for such a cypher is multiplication in a chosen modulus. In this project, you will create such a cypher, encrypt a message, then decrypt the message.

Step 1: Choose the letters, symbols, and punctuation marks you want to allow in your messages. This should include at least the uppercase letters and a space character. This is your character set.

Step 2: Count the number of characters you will use. Label this number nn.

Step 3: Pair each character of your character set an integer from 0 to (n1)(n1). Do not assign more than one character to an integer.

Step 4: Choose an integer, labeled ss, between 1 and (n1)(n1) so that GCF(n,s)=1GCF(n,s)=1. This will be the number used to create the cypher.

Step 5: Write a message using your character set.

Step 6: Replace every character in your message by the integer with which it was paired in Step 3.

Step 7: For every number, xx, from Step 6, perform the multiplication xsxs (mod nn).

Step 8: Replace every number found in Step 7 with the character with which it was paired in Step 3. This is your cyphertext.

Before beginning to decrypt in this cypher, you need to know the multiplicative inverse of the value you chose as s.

Step 1: The multiplicative inverse of ss is the number that, when multiplied by ss in your modulus, equals 1. To find this, you will have to multiply ss and every number between 2 and (n1n1) until the product is 1 (mod nn). Once this number is found, the message can be decrypted. Call this number rr.

Step 2: To decrypt your cyphertext, replace the cyphertext characters with the paired values.

Step 3: For each of the value, xx, perform the multiplication x×r(modn)x×r(modn).

Step 4: Replace the numbers from Step 3 with their paired characters from the character set.

The message is then deciphered.

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