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Contemporary Mathematics

1.1 Basic Set Concepts

Contemporary Mathematics1.1 Basic Set Concepts

Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sets
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Basic Set Concepts
    3. 1.2 Subsets
    4. 1.3 Understanding Venn Diagrams
    5. 1.4 Set Operations with Two Sets
    6. 1.5 Set Operations with Three Sets
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  3. 2 Logic
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Statements and Quantifiers
    3. 2.2 Compound Statements
    4. 2.3 Constructing Truth Tables
    5. 2.4 Truth Tables for the Conditional and Biconditional
    6. 2.5 Equivalent Statements
    7. 2.6 De Morgan’s Laws
    8. 2.7 Logical Arguments
    9. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  4. 3 Real Number Systems and Number Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Prime and Composite Numbers
    3. 3.2 The Integers
    4. 3.3 Order of Operations
    5. 3.4 Rational Numbers
    6. 3.5 Irrational Numbers
    7. 3.6 Real Numbers
    8. 3.7 Clock Arithmetic
    9. 3.8 Exponents
    10. 3.9 Scientific Notation
    11. 3.10 Arithmetic Sequences
    12. 3.11 Geometric Sequences
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  5. 4 Number Representation and Calculation
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Hindu-Arabic Positional System
    3. 4.2 Early Numeration Systems
    4. 4.3 Converting with Base Systems
    5. 4.4 Addition and Subtraction in Base Systems
    6. 4.5 Multiplication and Division in Base Systems
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  6. 5 Algebra
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Algebraic Expressions
    3. 5.2 Linear Equations in One Variable with Applications
    4. 5.3 Linear Inequalities in One Variable with Applications
    5. 5.4 Ratios and Proportions
    6. 5.5 Graphing Linear Equations and Inequalities
    7. 5.6 Quadratic Equations with Two Variables with Applications
    8. 5.7 Functions
    9. 5.8 Graphing Functions
    10. 5.9 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables
    11. 5.10 Systems of Linear Inequalities in Two Variables
    12. 5.11 Linear Programming
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  7. 6 Money Management
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Understanding Percent
    3. 6.2 Discounts, Markups, and Sales Tax
    4. 6.3 Simple Interest
    5. 6.4 Compound Interest
    6. 6.5 Making a Personal Budget
    7. 6.6 Methods of Savings
    8. 6.7 Investments
    9. 6.8 The Basics of Loans
    10. 6.9 Understanding Student Loans
    11. 6.10 Credit Cards
    12. 6.11 Buying or Leasing a Car
    13. 6.12 Renting and Homeownership
    14. 6.13 Income Tax
    15. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  8. 7 Probability
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Multiplication Rule for Counting
    3. 7.2 Permutations
    4. 7.3 Combinations
    5. 7.4 Tree Diagrams, Tables, and Outcomes
    6. 7.5 Basic Concepts of Probability
    7. 7.6 Probability with Permutations and Combinations
    8. 7.7 What Are the Odds?
    9. 7.8 The Addition Rule for Probability
    10. 7.9 Conditional Probability and the Multiplication Rule
    11. 7.10 The Binomial Distribution
    12. 7.11 Expected Value
    13. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  9. 8 Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Gathering and Organizing Data
    3. 8.2 Visualizing Data
    4. 8.3 Mean, Median and Mode
    5. 8.4 Range and Standard Deviation
    6. 8.5 Percentiles
    7. 8.6 The Normal Distribution
    8. 8.7 Applications of the Normal Distribution
    9. 8.8 Scatter Plots, Correlation, and Regression Lines
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  10. 9 Metric Measurement
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 The Metric System
    3. 9.2 Measuring Area
    4. 9.3 Measuring Volume
    5. 9.4 Measuring Weight
    6. 9.5 Measuring Temperature
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  11. 10 Geometry
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Points, Lines, and Planes
    3. 10.2 Angles
    4. 10.3 Triangles
    5. 10.4 Polygons, Perimeter, and Circumference
    6. 10.5 Tessellations
    7. 10.6 Area
    8. 10.7 Volume and Surface Area
    9. 10.8 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    10. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  12. 11 Voting and Apportionment
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Voting Methods
    3. 11.2 Fairness in Voting Methods
    4. 11.3 Standard Divisors, Standard Quotas, and the Apportionment Problem
    5. 11.4 Apportionment Methods
    6. 11.5 Fairness in Apportionment Methods
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  13. 12 Graph Theory
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Graph Basics
    3. 12.2 Graph Structures
    4. 12.3 Comparing Graphs
    5. 12.4 Navigating Graphs
    6. 12.5 Euler Circuits
    7. 12.6 Euler Trails
    8. 12.7 Hamilton Cycles
    9. 12.8 Hamilton Paths
    10. 12.9 Traveling Salesperson Problem
    11. 12.10 Trees
    12. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Videos
      4. Formula Review
      5. Projects
      6. Chapter Review
      7. Chapter Test
  14. 13 Math and...
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Math and Art
    3. 13.2 Math and the Environment
    4. 13.3 Math and Medicine
    5. 13.4 Math and Music
    6. 13.5 Math and Sports
    7. Chapter Summary
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Concepts
      3. Formula Review
      4. Projects
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Chapter Test
  15. A | Co-Req Appendix: Integer Powers of 10
  16. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  17. Index
A wooden spoon, a wooden fork, and a wooden knife on a plate.
Figure 1.2 A spoon, fork, and knife are elements of the set of flatware. (credit: modification of work “Cupofjoy” Wikimedia CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication)

Learning Objectives

After completing this section, you should be able to:

  1. Represent sets in a variety of ways.
  2. Represent well-defined sets and the empty set with proper set notation.
  3. Compute the cardinal value of a set.
  4. Differentiate between finite and infinite sets.
  5. Differentiate between equal and equivalent sets.

Sets and Ways to Represent Them

Think back to your kitchen organization. If the drawer is the set, then the forks and knives are elements in the set. Sets can be described in a number of different ways: by roster, by set-builder notation, by interval notation, by graphing on a number line, and by Venn diagrams. Sets are typically designated with capital letters. The simplest way to represent a set with only a few members is the roster (or listing) method, in which the elements in a set are listed, enclosed by curly braces and separated by commas. For example, if FF represents our set of flatware, we can represent FF by using the following set notation with the roster method:

F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}

Example 1.1

Writing a Set Using the Roster or Listing Method

Write a set consisting of your three favorite sports and label it with a capital SS.

Your Turn 1.1

1.
Write a set consisting of four small hand tools that might be in a toolbox and label it with a capital T .

All the sets we have considered so far have been well-defined sets. A well-defined set clearly communicates whether an element is a member of the set or not. The members of a well-defined set are fixed and do not change over time. Consider the following question. What are your top 10 songs of 2021? You could create a list of your top 10 favorite songs from 2021, but the list your friend creates will not necessarily contain the same 10 songs. So, the set of your top 10 songs of 2021 is not a well-defined set. On the other hand, the set of the letters in your name is a well-defined set because it does not vary (unless of course you change your name). The NFL wide receiver, Chad Johnson, famously changed his name to Chad Ochocinco to match his jersey number of 85.

Example 1.2

Identifying Well-Defined Sets

For each of the following collections, determine if it represents a well-defined set.

  1. The group of all past vice presidents of the United States.
  2. A group of old cats.

Your Turn 1.2

For each of the following collections, determine if it represents a well-defined set.

1.
A collection of medium-sized potatoes.
2.
The original members of the Black Eyed Peas musical group.

On January 20, 2021, Kamala Harris was sworn in as the first woman vice president of the United States of America. If we were to consider the set of all women vice presidents of the United States of America prior to January 20, 2021, this set would be known as an empty set; the number of people in this set is 0, since there were no women vice presidents before Harris. The empty set, also called the null set, is written symbolically using a pair of braces, {}{}, or a zero with a slash through it, .

Checkpoint

The set containing the number 0,{0}0,{0}, is a set with one element in it. It is not the same as the empty set, {}{}, which does not have any elements in it. Symbolically: {0}{}{0}{}.

Example 1.3

Representing the Empty Set Symbolically

Represent each of the following sets symbolically.

  1. The set of prime numbers less than 2.
  2. The set of birds that are also mammals.

Your Turn 1.3

1.
Represent the set of all numbers divisible by 0 symbolically.

Who Knew?

The Number Zero

We use the number zero to represent the concept of nothing every day. The machine language of computers is binary, consisting only of zeros and ones, and even way before that, the number zero was a powerful invention that allowed our understanding of mathematics and science to develop. The historical record shows the Babylonians first used zeros around 300 B.C., while the Mayans developed and began using zero separately around 350 A.D. What is considered the first formal use of zero in arithmetic operations was developed by the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta around 650 A.D.

Brahmagupta, Mathematician and Astronomer

Another interesting feature of the number zero is that although it is an even number, it is the only number that is neither negative nor positive.

For larger sets that have a natural ordering, sometimes an ellipsis is used to indicate that the pattern continues. It is common practice to list the first three elements of a set to establish a pattern, write the ellipsis, and then provide the last element. Consider the set of all lowercase letters of the English alphabet, AA. This set can be written symbolically as A={a, b, c,, z}A={a, b, c,, z}.

The sets we have been discussing so far are finite sets. They all have a limited or fixed number of elements. We also use an ellipsis for infinite sets, which have an unlimited number of elements, to indicate that the pattern continues. For example, in set theory, the set of natural numbers, which is the set of all positive counting numbers, is represented as ={1,2,3,}={1,2,3,}.

Notice that for this set, there is no element following the ellipsis. This is because there is no largest natural number; you can always add one more to get to the next natural number. Because the set of natural numbers grows without bound, it is an infinite set.

Example 1.4

Writing a Finite Set Using the Roster Method and an Ellipsis

Write the set of even natural numbers including and between 2 and 100, and label it with a capital EE. Include an ellipsis.

Your Turn 1.4

1.
Use an ellipsis to write the set of single digit numbers greater than or equal to zero and label it with a capital D .

Our number system is made up of several different infinite sets of numbers. The set of integers, ,, is another infinite set of numbers. It includes all the positive and negative counting numbers and the number zero. There is no largest or smallest integer.

Example 1.5

Writing an Infinite Set Using the Roster Method and Ellipses

Write the set of integers using the roster method, and label it with a .

Your Turn 1.5

1.
Write the set of odd numbers greater than 0 and label it with a capital M .

A shorthand way to write sets is with the use of set builder notation, which is a verbal description or formula for the set. For example, the set of all lowercase letters of the English alphabet, AA, written in set builder notation is:

A={ x|xis a lowercase letter of the English alphabet.}A={ x|xis a lowercase letter of the English alphabet.}

This is read as, “Set AA is the set of all elements xx such that xx is a lowercase letter of the English alphabet.”

Example 1.6

Writing a Set Using Set Builder Notation

Using set builder notation, write the set BB of all types of balls. Explain what the notation means.

Your Turn 1.6

1.
Using set builder notation, write the set C of all types of cars.

Example 1.7

Writing Sets Using Various Methods

Consider the set of letters in the word “happy.” Determine the best way to represent this set, and then write the set using either the roster method or set builder notation, whichever is more appropriate.

Your Turn 1.7

1.
Use the roster method or set builder notation to represent the collection of all musical instruments.

Computing the Cardinal Value of a Set

Almost all the sets most people work with outside of pure mathematics are finite sets. For these sets, the cardinal value or cardinality of the set is the number of elements in the set. For finite set AA, the cardinality is denoted symbolically as n(A)n(A). For example, a set that contains four elements has a cardinality of 4.

How do we measure the cardinality of infinite sets? The ‘smallest’ infinite set is the set of natural numbers, or counting numbers, ={1,2,3,}={1,2,3,}. This set has a cardinality of 00 (pronounced "aleph-null"). All sets that have the same cardinality as the set of natural numbers are countably infinite. This concept, as well as notation using aleph, was introduced by mathematician Georg Cantor who once said, “A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One.”

Example 1.8

Computing the Cardinal Value of a Set

Write the cardinal value of each of the following sets in symbolic form.

  1. F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}
  2. The empty set.

Your Turn 1.8

Write the cardinal value of each of the following sets in symbolic form.
1.
Set P is the set of prime numbers less than 2.
2.
Set A is the set of lowercase letters of the English alphabet, A = { a,b,c, , z } .

Now that we have learned to represent finite and infinite sets using both the roster method and set builder notation, we should also be able to determine if a set is finite or infinite based on its verbal or symbolic description. One way to determine if a set is finite or not is to determine the cardinality of the set. If the cardinality of a set is a natural number, then the set is finite.

Example 1.9

Differentiating Between Finite and Infinite Sets

Classify each of the following sets as infinite or finite.

  1. E={2,4,6,8,10}E={2,4,6,8,10}
  2. AA is the set of lowercase letters of the English Alphabet, A={a,b,c,,z}A={a,b,c,,z}.
  3. ={ pq|pandqareintegersandq0 }={ pq|pandqareintegersandq0 }

Your Turn 1.9

Classify each of the following sets as infinite or finite.

1.
B = { b , a , k , e }
2.
R = { x | x   is a real number }

Equal versus Equivalent Sets

When speaking or writing we tend to use equal and equivalent interchangeably, but there is an important distinction between their meanings. Consider a new Ford Escape Hybrid and a new Toyota Rav4 Hybrid. Both cars are hybrid electric sport utility vehicles; in that sense, they are equivalent. They will both get you from place to place in a relatively fuel-efficient way. In this example we are comparing the single member set {Toyota Rav4 Hybrid} to the single member set {Ford Escape Hybrid}. Since these two sets have the same number of elements, they are also equivalent mathematically, meaning they have the same cardinality. But they are not equal, because the two cars have different looks and features, and probably even handle differently. Each manufacturer will emphasize the features unique to their vehicle to persuade you to buy it; if the SUVs were truly equal, there would be no reason to choose one over the other.

Now consider two Honda CR-Vs that are made with exactly the same parts, on the same assembly line within a few minutes of each other—these SUVs are equal. They are identical to each other, containing the same elements without regard to order, and the only differentiator when making a purchasing decision would be varied pricing at different dealerships. The set {Honda CR-V} is equal to the set {Honda CR-V}. Symbolically, we represent equal sets as A=BA=B and equivalent sets as ABAB.

Now, let us consider a Toyota dealership that has 10 RAV4s on the lot, 8 Prii, 7 Highlanders, and 12 Camrys. There is a one-to-one relationship between the set of vehicles on the lot and the set consisting of the number of each type of vehicle on the lot. Therefore, these two sets are equivalent, but not equal. The set {RAV4, Prius, Highlander, Camry} is equivalent to the set {10, 8, 7, 12} because they have the same number of elements.

Checkpoint

If two sets are equal, they are also equivalent, because equal sets also have the same cardinality.

Example 1.10

Differentiating Between Equivalent and Equal Sets

Determine if the following pairs of sets are equal, equivalent, or neither.

  1. E={2,4,6,8,10 }E={2,4,6,8,10 } and F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}F={fork, spoon, knife, meat thermometer, can opener}
  2. The empty set and the set of prime numbers less than 2.
  3. The set of vowels in the word happiness and the set of consonants in the word happiness.

Your Turn 1.10

Determine if the following pairs of sets are equal, equivalent, or neither.

1.
Set B = { b , a , k , e } and set A = { a , b , e , k }
2.
Set B = { b , a , k , e } and set F = { f , l , a , k , e }
3.
Set B = { b , a , k , e } and set C = { c , a , k , e }

People in Mathematics

Georg Cantor

A portrait of Georg Cantor.
Figure 1.3 Georg Cantor (credit: Wikimedia, public domain)

Georg Cantor, the father of modern set theory, was born during the year 1845 in Saint Petersburg, Russia and later moved to Germany as a youth. Besides being an accomplished mathematician, he also played the violin. Cantor received his doctoral degree in Mathematics at the age of 22.

In 1870, at the age of 25 he established the uniqueness theorem for trigonometric series. His most significant work happened between 1874 and 1884, when he established the existence of transcendental numbers (also called irrational numbers) and proved that the set of real numbers are uncountably infinite—despite the objections of his former professor Leopold Kronecker.

Cantor published his final treatise on set theory in 1897 at the age of 52, and was awarded the Sylvester Medial from the Royal Society of London in 1904 for his contributions to the field. At the heart of Cantor’s work was his goal to solve the continuum problem, which later influenced the works of David Hilbert and Ernst Zermelo.

References:

Wikipedia contributors. “Cantor.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 23 Mar. 2021. Web. 20 Jul. 2021.

Akihiro Kanamori, “Set Theory from Cantor to Cohen,” Editor(s): Dov M. Gabbay, Akihiro Kanamori, John Woods, Handbook of the History of Logic, North-Holland, Volume 6, 2012.

Check Your Understanding

1.
A _____________ is a well-defined collection of objects.
2.
The _________________ of a finite set A , denoted n ( A ) , is the number of elements in set A .
3.
Determine if the following description describes a well-defined set: “The top 5 pizza restaurants in Chicago.”
4.
The United States is the only country to have landed people on the moon as of March 21, 2021. What is the cardinality of the set of all people who have walked on the moon prior to this date?
5.
Set A is a set of a dozen distinct donuts, and set B is a set of a dozen different types of apples. Is set A equal to set B , equivalent to set B , or neither?
6.
Is the set of all butterflies in the world a finite set or an infinite set?
7.
Represent the set of all upper-case letters of the English alphabet using both the roster method and set builder notation.
For the following exercises, represent each set using the roster method.
1 .
The set of primary colors: red, yellow, and blue.
2 .
A set of the following flowers: rose, tulip, marigold, iris, and lily.
3 .
The set of natural numbers between 50 and 100.
4 .
The set of natural numbers greater than 17.
5 .
The set of different pieces in a game of chess.
6 .
The set of natural numbers less than 21.
For the following exercises, represent each set using set builder notation.
7 .
The set of all types of lizards.
8 .
The set of all stars in the universe.
9 .
The set of all integer multiples of 3 that are greater than zero.
10 .
The set of all integer multiples of 4 that are greater than zero.
11 .
The set of all plants that are edible.
12 .
The set of all even numbers.
For the following exercises, represent each set using the method of your choice.
13 .
The set of all squares that are also circles.
14 .
The set of natural numbers divisible by zero.
15 .
The set of Mike and Carol’s children on the TV show, The Brady Bunch.
16 .
The set of all real numbers.
17 .
The set of polar bears that live in Antarctica.
18 .
The set of songs written by Prince.
19 .
The set of children’s books written and illustrated by Mo Willems.
20 .
The set of seven colors commonly listed in a rainbow.
For the following exercises, determine if the collection of objects represents a well-defined set or not.
21 .
The names of all the characters in the book, The Fault in Our Stars by John Green.
22 .
The five greatest soccer players of all time.
23 .
A group of old dogs that are able to learn new tricks.
24 .
A list of all the movies directed by Spike Lee as of 2021.
25 .
The group of all zebras that can fly an airplane.
26 .
The group of National Baseball League Hall of Fame members who have hit over 700 career home runs.
For the following exercises, compute the cardinal value of each set.
27 .
P = { Snuzzle, Butterscotch, Blue Belle, Minty, Blossom, Cotton Candy }
28 .
T = { pepperoni, sausage, bacon, ham, mushrooms, olives, bell pepper, pineapple }
29 .
30 .
B = { 5 , 6 , 7 , , 20 }
31 .
F = { 1 9 , 2 9 , 3 9 , 4 9 , 5 9 , 6 9 , 7 9 , 8 9 , 9 9 }
32 .
{   }
33 .
C = { n 3 | n  is a member of  N }
34 .
S = { 7 n | n  is an element of  N }
35 .
L = { l , m , n , , y }
36 .
The set of numbers on a standard 6-sided die.
For the following exercises, determine whether set A and set B are equal, equivalent or neither.
37 .
A = { right, acute, obtuse } ; B = { equilateral, scalene, isoceles } .
38 .
A = { 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 } ; B = { 1 4 , 1 3 , 1 2 , 1 } .
39 .
A = { red, orange, yellow } ; B = { green, blue, indigo, violet } .
40 .
A = { 5 n | n N } ; B = N .
41 .
A = { 2 , 1 , 0 , } ; B = { 2 , 3 , 5 , } .
42 .
A = { John, Paul, George, Ringo } ; B = { Bono, Larry, The Edge, Adam } .
43 .
A = ; B = {   } .
44 .
A = { lemon, lime, orange } ; B = { orange, lemon, lime, grape } .
For the following exercises, determine if the set described is finite or infinite.
45 .
The set of natural numbers.
46 .
The empty set.
47 .
The set consisting of all jazz venues in New Orleans, Louisiana.
48 .
The set of all real numbers.
49 .
The set of all different types of cheeses.
50 .
The set of all words in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, published in 2020.
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