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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. The Cellular Foundation of Life
    1. 1 Introduction to Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      3. 1.2 The Process of Science
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 Chemistry of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Biological Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Cell Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 How Cells Are Studied
      3. 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      4. 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 3.4 The Cell Membrane
      6. 3.5 Passive Transport
      7. 3.6 Active Transport
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 How Cells Obtain Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 4.2 Glycolysis
      4. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      5. 4.4 Fermentation
      6. 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 5 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Cell Division and Genetics
    1. 6 Reproduction at the Cellular Level
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Genome
      3. 6.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      5. 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
      3. 7.2 Meiosis
      4. 7.3 Variations in Meiosis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 8 Patterns of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
      3. 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
      4. 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    1. 9 Molecular Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 The Structure of DNA
      3. 9.2 DNA Replication
      4. 9.3 Transcription
      5. 9.4 Translation
      6. 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 10 Biotechnology
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
      3. 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture
      4. 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Evolution and the Diversity of Life
    1. 11 Evolution and Its Processes
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change
      3. 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
      4. 11.3 Evidence of Evolution
      5. 11.4 Speciation
      6. 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Diversity of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
      4. 13.3 Protists
      5. 13.4 Fungi
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 Diversity of Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
      3. 14.2 Seedless Plants
      4. 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
      5. 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Diversity of Animals
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
      4. 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
      5. 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids
      6. 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
      7. 15.6 Vertebrates
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 16 The Body’s Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation
      3. 16.2 Digestive System
      4. 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
      5. 16.4 Endocrine System
      6. 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
      7. 16.6 Nervous System
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 17 The Immune System and Disease
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Viruses
      3. 17.2 Innate Immunity
      4. 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
      5. 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 18 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
      3. 18.2 Development and Organogenesis
      4. 18.3 Human Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Ecology
    1. 19 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
      3. 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
      4. 19.3 The Human Population
      5. 19.4 Community Ecology
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 20 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Waterford's Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      3. 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
      4. 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 21 Conservation and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
      3. 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
      4. 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  9. B | Geological Time
  10. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  11. Index
A
acellular 17.1 Viruses
Acids 2.2 Water
Actinopterygii 15.6 Vertebrates
action potential 16.6 Nervous System
activation energy 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
active immunity 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
Active transport 3.6 Active Transport
Adaptive immunity 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
adaptive radiation 11.4 Speciation
adhesion 2.2 Water
adrenal glands 16.4 Endocrine System
Allopatric speciation 11.4 Speciation
allosteric inhibition 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
alternation of generations 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
alternative RNA splicing 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
amniotes 15.6 Vertebrates
Amoebozoa 13.3 Protists
Amphibia 15.6 Vertebrates
ampullae of Lorenzini 15.6 Vertebrates
Anthropoids 15.6 Vertebrates
antigen-presenting cell (APC) 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
apical meristem 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
apoptosis 17.1 Viruses
appendicular skeleton 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
applied science 1.2 The Process of Science
Archaeplastida 13.3 Protists
Arctic tundra 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Ascomycota 13.4 Fungi
Asexual reproduction 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
attenuation 17.1 Viruses
auditory ossicles 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
autonomic nervous system 16.6 Nervous System
B
Basal angiosperms 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
basal ganglia 16.6 Nervous System
bases 2.2 Water
Basidiomycota 13.4 Fungi
binomial nomenclature 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
biodiversity hotspot 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
biogeochemical cycle 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
boreal forest 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
bottleneck effect 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
brachiation 15.6 Vertebrates
Buffers 2.2 Water
bulbourethral gland 18.3 Human Reproduction
C
Caecilians 15.6 Vertebrates
Calvin cycle 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
capsid 17.1 Viruses
Carbohydrates 2.3 Biological Molecules
carbon fixation 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
Cardiac muscle tissue 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
Cartilaginous joints 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
cell cycle 6.2 The Cell Cycle
cell cycle checkpoints 6.2 The Cell Cycle
cell plate 6.2 The Cell Cycle
cell-mediated immune response 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
central nervous system (CNS) 16.6 Nervous System
central vacuole 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
centrioles 6.2 The Cell Cycle
cerebellum 16.6 Nervous System
cerebral cortex 16.6 Nervous System
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 16.6 Nervous System
chemical diversity 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
chiasmata 7.2 Meiosis
Chloroplasts 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Chondrichthyes 15.6 Vertebrates
Chromalveolata 13.3 Protists
chromosome inversion 7.3 Variations in Meiosis
chytridiomycosis 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
Chytridiomycota 13.4 Fungi
cleavage furrow 6.2 The Cell Cycle
climax community 19.4 Community Ecology
closed circulatory system 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
club mosses 14.2 Seedless Plants
cohesion 2.2 Water
competitive exclusion principle 19.4 Community Ecology
competitive inhibition 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
complement system 17.2 Innate Immunity
complete digestive system 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
concentration gradient 3.5 Passive Transport
Continuous variation 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
corpus callosum 16.6 Nervous System
corpus luteum 18.3 Human Reproduction
craniates 15.6 Vertebrates
Crocodilia 15.6 Vertebrates
crossing over 7.2 Meiosis
cutaneous respiration 15.6 Vertebrates
Cytokinesis 6.2 The Cell Cycle
cytopathic 17.1 Viruses
cytoskeleton 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
D
Deductive reasoning 1.2 The Process of Science
dendritic cell 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 2.3 Biological Molecules
depolarization 16.6 Nervous System
diphyodonts 15.6 Vertebrates
diploid 6.1 The Genome
diploid-dominant 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
Disaccharides 2.3 Biological Molecules
discontinuous variation 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
dispersal 11.4 Speciation
DNA ligase 9.2 DNA Replication
DNA polymerase 9.2 DNA Replication
dorsal hollow nerve cord 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
down feathers 15.6 Vertebrates
down-regulation 16.4 Endocrine System
E
ecosystem diversity 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
ecosystem services 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
effector cells 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
electrochemical gradient 3.6 Active Transport
Emergent vegetation 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
endergonic reactions 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
endocrine glands 16.4 Endocrine System
Endocytosis 3.6 Active Transport
endomembrane system 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
endosymbiotic theory 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
environmental disturbances 19.4 Community Ecology
essential nutrients 16.2 Digestive System
Eutherian mammals 15.6 Vertebrates
evaporation 2.2 Water
Excavata 13.3 Protists
exergonic reactions 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
Exocrine glands 16.4 Endocrine System
external fertilization 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
extinction rates 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
extracellular digestion 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
extracellular matrix 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
G
gallbladder 16.2 Digestive System
gametes 6.1 The Genome
Gap junctions 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
gastrovascular cavity 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
gene expression 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
genetic code 9.4 Translation
genetically modified organism 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
gestation period 18.3 Human Reproduction
Glomeromycota 13.4 Fungi
Glycolysis 4.2 Glycolysis
glycoprotein 17.1 Viruses
Gnathostomes 15.6 Vertebrates
Golgi apparatus 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) 18.3 Human Reproduction
H
habitat heterogeneity 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
Hagfishes 15.6 Vertebrates
haplodiplontic 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
haploid 6.1 The Genome
haploid-dominant 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
Hermaphroditism 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
heterodont teeth 15.6 Vertebrates
heterosporous 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
hippocampus 16.6 Nervous System
homologous chromosomes 6.1 The Genome
hormone receptors 16.4 Endocrine System
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) 18.3 Human Reproduction
humoral immune response 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
hydrophilic 2.2 Water
hydrophobic 2.2 Water
hydrothermal vent 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
hypha 13.4 Fungi
hypothalamus 16.6 Nervous System
hypothesis-based science 1.2 The Process of Science
M
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules 17.2 Innate Immunity
Mammary glands 15.6 Vertebrates
Marsupials 15.6 Vertebrates
meiosis I 7.2 Meiosis
Meiosis II 7.2 Meiosis
menstrual cycle 18.3 Human Reproduction
metaphase 6.2 The Cell Cycle
metaphase plate 6.2 The Cell Cycle
MHC class II molecule 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
mismatch repair 9.2 DNA Replication
Mitochondria 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
molds 13.4 Fungi
Monosaccharides 2.3 Biological Molecules
monotremes 15.6 Vertebrates
mycelium 13.4 Fungi
Mycorrhiza 13.4 Fungi
mycoses 13.4 Fungi
myelin sheath 16.6 Nervous System
P
paper 2.2 Water
parasites 13.3 Protists
parasympathetic nervous system 16.6 Nervous System
parathyroid glands 16.4 Endocrine System
parietal lobe 16.6 Nervous System
Parthenogenesis 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
passive immune 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
Passive transport 3.5 Passive Transport
pectoral girdle 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
Peer-reviewed articles 1.2 The Process of Science
pellicles 13.3 Protists
periodic table of elements 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
peripheral nervous system (PNS) 16.6 Nervous System
peristalsis 16.2 Digestive System
Peroxisomes 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Petromyzontidae 15.6 Vertebrates
pH scale 2.2 Water
Phagocytosis 3.6 Active Transport
Pharmacogenomics 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
phosphate group 9.1 The Structure of DNA
Phospholipids 2.3 Biological Molecules
physical sciences 1.2 The Process of Science
pinocytosis 3.6 Active Transport
pioneer species 19.4 Community Ecology
pituitary gland 16.4 Endocrine System
plasma membrane 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Plasmodesmata 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
pneumatic 15.6 Vertebrates
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
polysaccharide 2.3 Biological Molecules
post-transcriptional 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
post-translational 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
potential energy 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
primary immune response 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
primary succession 19.4 Community Ecology
Primates 15.6 Vertebrates
prometaphase 6.2 The Cell Cycle
Prosimians 15.6 Vertebrates
prostate gland 18.3 Human Reproduction
protein signature 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
pseudopeptidoglycan 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
Punnett square 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
S
salamanders 15.6 Vertebrates
salivary glands 16.2 Digestive System
saprobes 13.3 Protists
Sarcopterygii 15.6 Vertebrates
Saturated fatty acids 2.3 Biological Molecules
scientific laws 1.2 The Process of Science
scientific method 1.2 The Process of Science
scientific theory 1.2 The Process of Science
Sebaceous glands 15.6 Vertebrates
secondary immune response 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
secondary plant compounds 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
secondary succession 19.4 Community Ecology
selectively permeable 3.5 Passive Transport
semiconservative replication 9.2 DNA Replication
seminal vesicles 18.3 Human Reproduction
seminiferous tubules 18.3 Human Reproduction
sensory-somatic nervous system 16.6 Nervous System
Sertoli cells 18.3 Human Reproduction
sex determination 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
sexual reproduction 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
shared ancestral character 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
Skeletal muscle tissue 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
small intestine 16.2 Digestive System
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Smooth muscle tissue 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
solvent 2.2 Water
somatic cell 7.2 Meiosis
speciation 11.4 Speciation
species distribution pattern 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
Species richness 19.4 Community Ecology
species-area relationship 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
spermatogenesis 18.3 Human Reproduction
Sphenodontia 15.6 Vertebrates
sporophylls 14.2 Seedless Plants
Squamata 15.6 Vertebrates
start codon 9.4 Translation
stereoscopic vision 15.6 Vertebrates
stop codons 9.4 Translation
Subtropical deserts 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Sudoriferous glands 15.6 Vertebrates
surface tension 2.2 Water
swim bladder 15.6 Vertebrates
sympathetic nervous system 16.6 Nervous System
Sympatric speciation 11.4 Speciation
synapsis 7.2 Meiosis
synaptic cleft 16.6 Nervous System
Synovial joints 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
T
telomerase 9.2 DNA Replication
telophase 6.2 The Cell Cycle
Temperate forests 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temperate grasslands 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temperature 2.2 Water
template strand 9.3 Transcription
temporal lobe 16.6 Nervous System
Testudines 15.6 Vertebrates
tetrads 7.2 Meiosis
thallus 13.4 Fungi
Thermodynamics 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
threshold of excitation 16.6 Nervous System
thyroid gland 16.4 Endocrine System
tight junction 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
tragedy of the commons 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
transcription bubble 9.3 Transcription
translocations 7.3 Variations in Meiosis
triglycerides 2.3 Biological Molecules
Tropical rainforests 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Tumor suppressor genes 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Y
yeasts 13.4 Fungi
Z
zero population growth 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
Zygomycota 13.4 Fungi
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