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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. The Cellular Foundation of Life
    1. 1 Introduction to Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      3. 1.2 The Process of Science
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 Chemistry of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Biological Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Cell Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 How Cells Are Studied
      3. 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      4. 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 3.4 The Cell Membrane
      6. 3.5 Passive Transport
      7. 3.6 Active Transport
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 How Cells Obtain Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 4.2 Glycolysis
      4. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      5. 4.4 Fermentation
      6. 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 5 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics
    1. 6 Reproduction at the Cellular Level
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Genome
      3. 6.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      5. 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
      3. 7.2 Meiosis
      4. 7.3 Errors in Meiosis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 8 Patterns of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
      3. 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
      4. 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    1. 9 Molecular Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 The Structure of DNA
      3. 9.2 DNA Replication
      4. 9.3 Transcription
      5. 9.4 Translation
      6. 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 10 Biotechnology
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
      3. 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture
      4. 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life
    1. 11 Evolution and Its Processes
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change
      3. 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
      4. 11.3 Evidence of Evolution
      5. 11.4 Speciation
      6. 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Diversity of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
      4. 13.3 Protists
      5. 13.4 Fungi
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 Diversity of Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
      3. 14.2 Seedless Plants
      4. 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
      5. 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Diversity of Animals
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
      4. 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
      5. 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids
      6. 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
      7. 15.6 Vertebrates
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 16 The Body’s Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation
      3. 16.2 Digestive System
      4. 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
      5. 16.4 Endocrine System
      6. 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
      7. 16.6 Nervous System
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 17 The Immune System and Disease
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Viruses
      3. 17.2 Innate Immunity
      4. 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
      5. 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 18 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
      3. 18.2 Development and Organogenesis
      4. 18.3 Human Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6. Ecology
    1. 19 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
      3. 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
      4. 19.3 The Human Population
      5. 19.4 Community Ecology
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 20 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Waterford's Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      3. 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
      4. 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 21 Conservation and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
      3. 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
      4. 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  9. B | Geological Time
  10. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  11. Index
A
acellular17.1 Viruses
Actinopterygii15.6 Vertebrates
action potential16.6 Nervous System
activation energy4.1 Energy and Metabolism
active immunity17.3 Adaptive Immunity
Active transport3.6 Active Transport
Adaptive immunity17.3 Adaptive Immunity
adaptive radiation11.4 Speciation
adhesion2.2 Water
adrenal glands16.4 Endocrine System
Allopatric speciation11.4 Speciation
allosteric inhibition4.1 Energy and Metabolism
alternation of generations7.1 Sexual Reproduction
alternative RNA splicing9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
Amoebozoa13.3 Protists
ampullae of Lorenzini15.6 Vertebrates
Anthropoids15.6 Vertebrates
antigen-presenting cell (APC)17.3 Adaptive Immunity
apical meristem14.1 The Plant Kingdom
apoptosis17.1 Viruses
appendicular skeleton16.5 Musculoskeletal System
Archaeplastida13.3 Protists
Ascomycota13.4 Fungi
Asexual reproduction18.1 How Animals Reproduce
attenuation17.1 Viruses
autonomic nervous system16.6 Nervous System
B
basal ganglia16.6 Nervous System
Basidiomycota13.4 Fungi
binomial nomenclature12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
biodiversity hotspot21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
biogeochemical cycle20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
brachiation15.6 Vertebrates
Buffers2.2 Water
bulbourethral gland18.3 Human Reproduction
C
carbon fixation5.3 The Calvin Cycle
Cardiac muscle tissue16.5 Musculoskeletal System
Cartilaginous joints16.5 Musculoskeletal System
cell cycle checkpoints6.2 The Cell Cycle
cell-mediated immune response17.3 Adaptive Immunity
central nervous system (CNS)16.6 Nervous System
central vacuole3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
cerebral cortex16.6 Nervous System
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)16.6 Nervous System
chiasmata7.2 Meiosis
Chondrichthyes15.6 Vertebrates
Chromalveolata13.3 Protists
chromosome inversion7.3 Errors in Meiosis
Chytridiomycota13.4 Fungi
cleavage furrow6.2 The Cell Cycle
climax community19.4 Community Ecology
cohesion2.2 Water
competitive exclusion principle19.4 Community Ecology
competitive inhibition4.1 Energy and Metabolism
complement system17.2 Innate Immunity
concentration gradient3.5 Passive Transport
Continuous variation8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
corpus callosum16.6 Nervous System
crossing over7.2 Meiosis
cutaneous respiration15.6 Vertebrates
cytopathic17.1 Viruses
D
Deductive reasoning1.2 The Process of Science
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)2.3 Biological Molecules
depolarization16.6 Nervous System
diphyodonts15.6 Vertebrates
diploid-dominant7.1 Sexual Reproduction
discontinuous variation8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
DNA polymerase9.2 DNA Replication
dorsal hollow nerve cord15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
down feathers15.6 Vertebrates
down-regulation16.4 Endocrine System
E
electrochemical gradient3.6 Active Transport
endergonic reactions4.1 Energy and Metabolism
endocrine glands16.4 Endocrine System
endomembrane system3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
endosymbiotic theory13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
environmental disturbances19.4 Community Ecology
essential nutrients16.2 Digestive System
Eutherian mammals15.6 Vertebrates
evaporation2.2 Water
exergonic reactions4.1 Energy and Metabolism
Exocrine glands16.4 Endocrine System
external fertilization18.1 How Animals Reproduce
extracellular digestion15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
extracellular matrix3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
G
gastrovascular cavity15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
genetic code9.4 Translation
genetically modified organism10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
gestation period18.3 Human Reproduction
Glomeromycota13.4 Fungi
Glycolysis4.2 Glycolysis
glycoprotein17.1 Viruses
Gnathostomes15.6 Vertebrates
Golgi apparatus3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)18.3 Human Reproduction
H
habitat heterogeneity21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
haploid-dominant7.1 Sexual Reproduction
heterodont teeth15.6 Vertebrates
homologous chromosomes6.1 The Genome
hormone receptors16.4 Endocrine System
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG)18.3 Human Reproduction
humoral immune response17.3 Adaptive Immunity
hydrophilic2.2 Water
hydrophobic2.2 Water
hypothesis-based science1.2 The Process of Science
M
major histocompatibility class (MHC) I molecules17.2 Innate Immunity
Mammary glands15.6 Vertebrates
meiosis I7.2 Meiosis
Meiosis II7.2 Meiosis
metaphase plate6.2 The Cell Cycle
MHC class II molecule17.3 Adaptive Immunity
mismatch repair9.2 DNA Replication
mycelium13.4 Fungi
Mycorrhiza13.4 Fungi
mycoses13.4 Fungi
myelin sheath16.6 Nervous System
P
parasites13.3 Protists
parasympathetic nervous system16.6 Nervous System
parathyroid glands16.4 Endocrine System
parietal lobe16.6 Nervous System
Passive transport3.5 Passive Transport
Peer-reviewed articles1.2 The Process of Science
pellicles13.3 Protists
periodic table of elements2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
peripheral nervous system (PNS)16.6 Nervous System
Petromyzontidae15.6 Vertebrates
pH scale2.2 Water
pioneer species19.4 Community Ecology
pituitary gland16.4 Endocrine System
plasma membrane3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
post-transcriptional9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
post-translational9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
primary immune response17.3 Adaptive Immunity
primary succession19.4 Community Ecology
prometaphase6.2 The Cell Cycle
pseudopeptidoglycan13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
S
salamanders15.6 Vertebrates
salivary glands16.2 Digestive System
Sarcopterygii15.6 Vertebrates
Saturated fatty acids2.3 Biological Molecules
Sebaceous glands15.6 Vertebrates
secondary immune response17.3 Adaptive Immunity
secondary plant compounds21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
secondary succession19.4 Community Ecology
selectively permeable3.5 Passive Transport
semiconservative replication9.2 DNA Replication
seminal vesicles18.3 Human Reproduction
seminiferous tubules18.3 Human Reproduction
sensory-somatic nervous system16.6 Nervous System
sexual reproduction18.1 How Animals Reproduce
Skeletal muscle tissue16.5 Musculoskeletal System
small intestine16.2 Digestive System
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Smooth muscle tissue16.5 Musculoskeletal System
solvent2.2 Water
somatic cell7.2 Meiosis
speciation11.4 Speciation
species distribution pattern19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
Species richness19.4 Community Ecology
species-area relationship21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
Sphenodontia15.6 Vertebrates
start codon9.4 Translation
stereoscopic vision15.6 Vertebrates
stop codons9.4 Translation
Subtropical deserts20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Sudoriferous glands15.6 Vertebrates
surface tension2.2 Water
swim bladder15.6 Vertebrates
sympathetic nervous system16.6 Nervous System
Sympatric speciation11.4 Speciation
synapsis7.2 Meiosis
synaptic cleft16.6 Nervous System
T
Temperate forests20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temperate grasslands20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Temperature2.2 Water
template strand9.3 Transcription
temporal lobe16.6 Nervous System
thallus13.4 Fungi
threshold of excitation16.6 Nervous System
tight junction3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
tragedy of the commons21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
transcription bubble9.3 Transcription
translocations7.3 Errors in Meiosis
Tropical rainforests20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
Tumor suppressor genes6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Y
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