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Concepts of Biology

Review Questions

Concepts of BiologyReview Questions


Imagine that you are performing a cross involving seed color in garden pea plants. What traits would you expect to observe in the F1 offspring if you cross true-breeding parents with green seeds and yellow seeds? Yellow seed color is dominant over green.

  1. only yellow-green seeds
  2. only yellow seeds
  3. 1:1 yellow seeds:green seeds
  4. 1:3 green seeds:yellow seeds

Imagine that you are performing a cross involving seed texture in garden pea plants. You cross true-breeding round and wrinkled parents to obtain F1 offspring. Which of the following experimental results in terms of numbers of plants are closest to what you expect in the F2 progeny?

  1. 810 round seeds
  2. 810 wrinkled seeds
  3. 405:395 round seeds:wrinkled seeds
  4. 610:190 round seeds:wrinkled seeds

The observable traits expressed by an organism are described as its ________.

  1. phenotype
  2. genotype
  3. alleles
  4. zygote

A recessive trait will be observed in individuals that are ________ for that trait.

  1. heterozygous
  2. homozygous or heterozygous
  3. homozygous
  4. diploid

What are the types of gametes that can be produced by an individual with the genotype AaBb?

  1. Aa, Bb
  2. AA, aa, BB, bb
  3. AB, Ab, aB, ab
  4. AB, ab

What is the reason for doing a test cross?

  1. to identify heterozygous individuals with the dominant phenotype
  2. to determine which allele is dominant and which is recessive
  3. to identify homozygous recessive individuals in the F2
  4. to determine if two genes assort independently

If black and white true-breeding mice are mated and the result is all gray offspring, what inheritance pattern would this be indicative of?

  1. dominance
  2. codominance
  3. multiple alleles
  4. incomplete dominance

The ABO blood groups in humans are expressed as the IA, IB, and i alleles. The IA allele encodes the A blood group antigen, IB encodes B, and i encodes O. Both A and B are dominant to O. If a heterozygous blood type A parent (IAi) and a heterozygous blood type B parent (IBi) mate, one quarter of their offspring are expected to have the AB blood type (IAIB) in which both antigens are expressed equally. Therefore, ABO blood groups are an example of:

  1. multiple alleles and incomplete dominance
  2. codominance and incomplete dominance
  3. incomplete dominance only
  4. multiple alleles and codominance

In a cross between a homozygous red-eyed female fruit fly and a white-eyed male fruit fly, what is the expected outcome?

  1. all white-eyed male offspring
  2. all white-eyed female offspring
  3. all red-eyed offspring
  4. half white-eyed make offspring

When a population has a gene with four alleles circulating, how many possible genotypes are there?

  1. 3
  2. 6
  3. 10
  4. 16
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