Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

alternation of generations
a life-cycle type in which the diploid and haploid stages alternate
an individual with an error in chromosome number; includes deletions and duplications of chromosome segments
any of the non-sex chromosomes
(singular = chiasma) the structure that forms at the crossover points after genetic material is exchanged
chromosome inversion
the detachment, 180° rotation, and reinsertion of a chromosome arm
crossing over
(also, recombination) the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes resulting in chromosomes that incorporate genes from both parents of the organism forming reproductive cells
a life-cycle type in which the multicellular diploid stage is prevalent
an individual with the appropriate number of chromosomes for their species
the union of two haploid cells typically from two individual organisms
a multicellular haploid life-cycle stage that produces gametes
germ cell
a specialized cell that produces gametes, such as eggs or sperm
a life-cycle type in which the multicellular haploid stage is prevalent
a period of rest that may occur between meiosis I and meiosis II; there is no replication of DNA during interkinesis
the photographic image of a karyotype
the number and appearance of an individuals chromosomes, including the size, banding patterns, and centromere position
life cycle
the sequence of events in the development of an organism and the production of cells that produce offspring
a nuclear division process that results in four haploid cells
meiosis I
the first round of meiotic cell division; referred to as reduction division because the resulting cells are haploid
meiosis II
the second round of meiotic cell division following meiosis I; sister chromatids are separated from each other, and the result is four unique haploid cells
an otherwise diploid genotype in which one chromosome is missing
the failure of synapsed homologs to completely separate and migrate to separate poles during the first cell division of meiosis
an individual with an incorrect number of chromosome sets
describing something composed of genetic material from two sources, such as a chromosome with both maternal and paternal segments of DNA
reduction division
a nuclear division that produces daughter nuclei each having one-half as many chromosome sets as the parental nucleus; meiosis I is a reduction division
somatic cell
all the cells of a multicellular organism except the gamete-forming cells
a multicellular diploid life-cycle stage that produces spores
the formation of a close association between homologous chromosomes during prophase I
two duplicated homologous chromosomes (four chromatids) bound together by chiasmata during prophase I
the process by which one segment of a chromosome dissociates and reattaches to a different, nonhomologous chromosome
an otherwise diploid genotype in which one entire chromosome is duplicated
X inactivation
the condensation of X chromosomes into Barr bodies during embryonic development in females to compensate for the double genetic dose
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jan 8, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.