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anaphase
the stage of mitosis during which sister chromatids are separated from each other
binary fission
the process of prokaryotic cell division
cell cycle
the ordered sequence of events that a cell passes through between one cell division and the next
cell cycle checkpoints
mechanisms that monitor the preparedness of a eukaryotic cell to advance through the various cell cycle stages
cell plate
a structure formed during plant-cell cytokinesis by Golgi vesicles fusing at the metaphase plate; will ultimately lead to formation of a cell wall to separate the two daughter cells
centriole
a paired rod-like structure constructed of microtubules at the center of each animal cell centrosome
cleavage furrow
a constriction formed by the actin ring during animal-cell cytokinesis that leads to cytoplasmic division
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm following mitosis to form two daughter cells
diploid
describes a cell, nucleus, or organism containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)
FtsZ
a tubulin-like protein component of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton that is important in prokaryotic cytokinesis (name origin: Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z)
G0 phase
a cell-cycle phase distinct from the G1 phase of interphase; a cell in G0 is not preparing to divide
G1 phase
(also, first gap) a cell-cycle phase; first phase of interphase centered on cell growth during mitosis
G2 phase
(also, second gap) a cell-cycle phase; third phase of interphase where the cell undergoes the final preparations for mitosis
gamete
a haploid reproductive cell or sex cell (sperm or egg)
gene
the physical and functional unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific peptide or RNA molecule
genome
the entire genetic complement (DNA) of an organism
haploid
describes a cell, nucleus, or organism containing one set of chromosomes (n)
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes of the same length with genes in the same location; diploid organisms have pairs of homologous chromosomes, and the members of each pair come from different parents
interphase
the period of the cell cycle leading up to mitosis; includes G1, S, and G2 phases; the interim between two consecutive cell divisions
kinetochore
a protein structure in the centromere of each sister chromatid that attracts and binds spindle microtubules during prometaphase
locus
the position of a gene on a chromosome
metaphase
the stage of mitosis during which chromosomes are lined up at the metaphase plate
metaphase plate
the equatorial plane midway between two poles of a cell where the chromosomes align during metaphase
mitosis
the period of the cell cycle at which the duplicated chromosomes are separated into identical nuclei; includes prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
mitotic phase
the period of the cell cycle when duplicated chromosomes are distributed into two nuclei and the cytoplasmic contents are divided; includes mitosis and cytokinesis
mitotic spindle
the microtubule apparatus that orchestrates the movement of chromosomes during mitosis
oncogene
a mutated version of a proto-oncogene, which allows for uncontrolled progression of the cell cycle, or uncontrolled cell reproduction
origin
the region of the prokaryotic chromosome at which replication begins
prometaphase
the stage of mitosis during which mitotic spindle fibers attach to kinetochores
prophase
the stage of mitosis during which chromosomes condense and the mitotic spindle begins to form
proto-oncogene
a normal gene that controls cell division by regulating the cell cycle that becomes an oncogene if it is mutated
quiescent
describes a cell that is performing normal cell functions and has not initiated preparations for cell division
S phase
the second, or synthesis phase, of interphase during which DNA replication occurs
septum
a wall formed between bacterial daughter cells as a precursor to cell separation
telophase
the stage of mitosis during which chromosomes arrive at opposite poles, decondense, and are surrounded by new nuclear envelopes
tumor suppressor gene
a gene that codes for regulator proteins that prevent the cell from undergoing uncontrolled division
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