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the variety of a biological system, typically conceived as the number of species, but also applying to genes, biochemistry, and ecosystems
biodiversity hotspot
a concept originated by Norman Myers to describe a geographical region with a large number of endemic species and a large percentage of degraded habitat
bush meat
a wild-caught animal used as food (typically mammals, birds, and reptiles); usually referring to hunting in the tropics of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
chemical diversity
the variety of metabolic compounds in an ecosystem
a disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; thought to be a major cause of the global amphibian decline
ecosystem diversity
the variety of ecosystems
endemic species
a species native to one place
exotic species
(also, invasive species) a species that has been introduced to an ecosystem in which it did not evolve
the disappearance of a species from Earth; local extinction is the disappearance of a species from a region
extinction rate
the number of species becoming extinct over time, sometimes defined as extinctions per million species–years to make numbers manageable (E/MSY)
genetic diversity
the variety of genes and alleles in a species or other taxonomic group or ecosystem; the term can refer to allelic diversity or genome-wide diversity
habitat heterogeneity
the number of ecological niches
secondary plant compound
a compound produced as a byproduct of plant metabolic processes that is typically toxic, but is sequestered by the plant to defend against herbivores
species-area relationship
the relationship between area surveyed and number of species encountered; typically measured by incrementally increasing the area of a survey and determining the cumulative numbers of species
tragedy of the commons
an economic principle that resources held in common will inevitably be over-exploited
white-nose syndrome
a disease of cave-hibernating bats in the eastern United States and Canada associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans
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