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age structure
the distribution of the proportion of population members in each age class
birth rate
the number of births within a population at a specific point in time
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a population that can be supported by the limited resources of a habitat
climax community
the final stage of succession, where a stable community is formed by a characteristic assortment of plant and animal species
competitive exclusion principle
no two species within a habitat can coexist indefinitely when they compete for the same resources at the same time and place
death rate
the number of deaths within a population at a specific point in time
the statistical study of changes in populations over time
density-dependent regulation
the regulation of population in which birth and death rates are dependent on population size
density-independent regulation
the regulation of population in which the death rate is independent of the population size
environmental disturbance
a change in the environment caused by natural disasters or human activities
exponential growth
an accelerating growth pattern seen in populations where resources are not limiting
foundation species
a species which often forms the major structural portion of the habitat
an organism a parasite lives on
intraspecific competition
the competition among members of the same species
island biogeography
the study of life on island chains and how their geography interacts with the diversity of species found there
J-shaped growth curve
the shape of an exponential growth curve
K-selected species
a species suited to stable environments that produce a few, relatively large offspring and provide parental care
keystone species
a species whose presence is key to maintaining biodiversity in an ecosystem and to upholding an ecological community’s structure
life table
a table showing the life expectancy of a population member based on its age
logistic growth
the leveling off of exponential growth due to limiting resources
mark and recapture
a method used to determine population size in mobile organisms
an adaptation in which an organism looks like another organism that is dangerous, toxic, or distasteful to its predators
mortality rate
the proportion of population surviving to the beginning of an age interval that dies during that age interval
a symbiotic relationship between two species where both species benefit
one-child policy
a policy in China to limit population growth by limiting urban couples to have only one child or face a penalty of a fine
an organism that uses resources from another species: the host
pioneer species
the first species to appear in primary and secondary succession
population density
the number of population members divided by the area being measured
population size
the number of individuals in a population
primary succession
the succession on land that previously has had no life
a square within which a count of individuals is made that is combined with other such counts to determine population size and density in slow moving or stationary organisms
r-selected species
a species suited to changing environments that produce many offspring and provide little or no parental care
relative species abundance
the absolute population size of a particular species relative to the population size of other species within the community
S-shaped growth curve
the shape of a logistic growth curve
secondary succession
the succession in response to environmental disturbances that move a community away from its equilibrium
species distribution pattern
the distribution of individuals within a habitat at a given point in time
species richness
the number of different species in a community
survivorship curve
a graph of the number of surviving population members versus the relative age of the member
zero population growth
the steady population size where birth rates and death rates are equal
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