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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. The Cellular Foundation of Life
    1. 1 Introduction to Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Themes and Concepts of Biology
      3. 1.2 The Process of Science
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 2 Chemistry of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 The Building Blocks of Molecules
      3. 2.2 Water
      4. 2.3 Biological Molecules
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 3 Cell Structure and Function
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 How Cells Are Studied
      3. 3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
      4. 3.3 Eukaryotic Cells
      5. 3.4 The Cell Membrane
      6. 3.5 Passive Transport
      7. 3.6 Active Transport
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 4 How Cells Obtain Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Energy and Metabolism
      3. 4.2 Glycolysis
      4. 4.3 Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      5. 4.4 Fermentation
      6. 4.5 Connections to Other Metabolic Pathways
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 5 Photosynthesis
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
      3. 5.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
      4. 5.3 The Calvin Cycle
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  3. Unit 2. Cell Division and Genetics
    1. 6 Reproduction at the Cellular Level
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 The Genome
      3. 6.2 The Cell Cycle
      4. 6.3 Cancer and the Cell Cycle
      5. 6.4 Prokaryotic Cell Division
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 7 The Cellular Basis of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Sexual Reproduction
      3. 7.2 Meiosis
      4. 7.3 Errors in Meiosis
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 8 Patterns of Inheritance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Mendel’s Experiments
      3. 8.2 Laws of Inheritance
      4. 8.3 Extensions of the Laws of Inheritance
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  4. Unit 3. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
    1. 9 Molecular Biology
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 The Structure of DNA
      3. 9.2 DNA Replication
      4. 9.3 Transcription
      5. 9.4 Translation
      6. 9.5 How Genes Are Regulated
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 10 Biotechnology
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Cloning and Genetic Engineering
      3. 10.2 Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture
      4. 10.3 Genomics and Proteomics
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  5. Unit 4. Evolution and the Diversity of Life
    1. 11 Evolution and Its Processes
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Discovering How Populations Change
      3. 11.2 Mechanisms of Evolution
      4. 11.3 Evidence of Evolution
      5. 11.4 Speciation
      6. 11.5 Common Misconceptions about Evolution
      7. Key Terms
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Visual Connection Questions
      10. Review Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 12 Diversity of Life
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Organizing Life on Earth
      3. 12.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships
      4. Key Terms
      5. Chapter Summary
      6. Visual Connection Questions
      7. Review Questions
      8. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 13 Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Prokaryotic Diversity
      3. 13.2 Eukaryotic Origins
      4. 13.3 Protists
      5. 13.4 Fungi
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    4. 14 Diversity of Plants
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 The Plant Kingdom
      3. 14.2 Seedless Plants
      4. 14.3 Seed Plants: Gymnosperms
      5. 14.4 Seed Plants: Angiosperms
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    5. 15 Diversity of Animals
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom
      3. 15.2 Sponges and Cnidarians
      4. 15.3 Flatworms, Nematodes, and Arthropods
      5. 15.4 Mollusks and Annelids
      6. 15.5 Echinoderms and Chordates
      7. 15.6 Vertebrates
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
  6. Unit 5. Animal Structure and Function
    1. 16 The Body’s Systems
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Homeostasis and Osmoregulation
      3. 16.2 Digestive System
      4. 16.3 Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
      5. 16.4 Endocrine System
      6. 16.5 Musculoskeletal System
      7. 16.6 Nervous System
      8. Key Terms
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Visual Connection Questions
      11. Review Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 17 The Immune System and Disease
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Viruses
      3. 17.2 Innate Immunity
      4. 17.3 Adaptive Immunity
      5. 17.4 Disruptions in the Immune System
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 18 Animal Reproduction and Development
      1. Introduction
      2. 18.1 How Animals Reproduce
      3. 18.2 Development and Organogenesis
      4. 18.3 Human Reproduction
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  7. Unit 6. Ecology
    1. 19 Population and Community Ecology
      1. Introduction
      2. 19.1 Population Demographics and Dynamics
      3. 19.2 Population Growth and Regulation
      4. 19.3 The Human Population
      5. 19.4 Community Ecology
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    2. 20 Ecosystems and the Biosphere
      1. Introduction
      2. 20.1 Waterford's Energy Flow through Ecosystems
      3. 20.2 Biogeochemical Cycles
      4. 20.3 Terrestrial Biomes
      5. 20.4 Aquatic and Marine Biomes
      6. Key Terms
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Visual Connection Questions
      9. Review Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Questions
    3. 21 Conservation and Biodiversity
      1. Introduction
      2. 21.1 Importance of Biodiversity
      3. 21.2 Threats to Biodiversity
      4. 21.3 Preserving Biodiversity
      5. Key Terms
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Visual Connection Questions
      8. Review Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Questions
  8. A | The Periodic Table of Elements
  9. B | Geological Time
  10. C | Measurements and the Metric System
  11. Index
asexual reproduction
a mechanism that produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
blastocyst
the structure formed when cells in the mammalian blastula separate into an inner and outer layer
budding
a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of an organism leading to a separation from the original animal into two individuals
bulbourethral gland
the paired glands in the human male that produce a secretion that cleanses the urethra prior to ejaculation
clitoris
a sensory and erectile structure in female mammals, homologous to the male penis, stimulated during sexual arousal
corpus luteum
the endocrine tissue that develops from an ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy
estrogen
a reproductive hormone in females that assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption
external fertilization
the fertilization of eggs by sperm outside an animal’s body, often during spawning
fission
(also, binary fission) a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two separate organisms or two parts that regenerate the missing portions of the body
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
a reproductive hormone that causes sperm production in men and follicle development in women
fragmentation
the breaking of an organism into parts and the growth of a separate individual from each part
gastrulation
the process in which the blastula folds over itself to form the three germ layers
gestation
the development before birth of a viviparous animal
gestation period
the length of time of development, from conception to birth, of the young of a viviparous animal
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
a hormone from the hypothalamus that causes the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
hermaphroditism
the state of having both male and female reproductive structures within the same individual
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG)
a hormone produced by the chorion of the zygote that helps to maintain the corpus luteum and elevated levels of progesterone
inhibin
a hormone made by Sertoli cells, provides negative feedback to hypothalamus in control of FSH and GnRH release
inner cell mass
the inner layer of cells in the blastocyst, which becomes the embryo
internal fertilization
the fertilization of eggs by sperm inside the body of the female
interstitial cell of Leydig
a cell type found next to the seminiferous tubules that makes testosterone
labia majora
the large folds of tissue covering inguinal area
labia minora
the smaller folds of tissue within labia majora
luteinizing hormone (LH)
a reproductive hormone in both men and women, causes testosterone production in men and ovulation and lactation in women
menstrual cycle
the cycle of the degradation and re-growth of the endometrium
oogenesis
the process of producing haploid eggs
organogenesis
the process of organ formation during development
ovarian cycle
the cycle of preparation of egg for ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum
oviduct
(also, fallopian tube) the muscular tube connecting uterus with ovary area
oviparity
a process by which fertilized eggs are laid outside the female’s body and develop there, receiving nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg
ovoviparity
a process by which fertilized eggs are retained within the female; the embryo obtains its nourishment from the egg’s yolk, and the young are fully developed when they are hatched
ovulation
the release of an oocyte from a mature follicle in the ovary of a vertebrate
parthenogenesis
a form of asexual reproduction in which an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized
penis
the male reproductive structure for urine elimination and copulation
placenta
the organ that supports the transport of nutrients and waste between the mothers and fetus’ blood in eutherian mammals
progesterone
a reproductive hormone in women; assists in endometrial regrowth and inhibition of FSH and LH release
prostate gland
a structure that is a mixture of smooth muscle and glandular material and that contributes to semen
scrotum
a sac containing testes, exterior to body
semen
a fluid mixture of sperm and supporting materials
seminal vesicle
a secretory accessory gland in male; contributes to semen
seminiferous tubule
the structures within which sperm production occurs in the testes
Sertoli cell
a cell in the walls of the seminiferous tubules that assists developing sperm and secretes inhibin
sex determination
the mechanism by which the sex of individuals in sexually reproducing organisms is initially established
sexual reproduction
a form of reproduction in which cells containing genetic material from two individuals combines to produce genetically unique offspring
spermatogenesis
the process of producing haploid sperm
testes
a pair of male reproductive organs
testosterone
a reproductive hormone in men that assists in sperm production and promoting secondary sexual characteristics
trophoblast
the outer layer of cells in the blastocyst, which gives rise to the embryo’s contribution to the placenta
uterus
a female reproductive structure in which an embryo develops
vagina
a muscular tube for the passage of menstrual flow, copulation, and birth of offspring
viviparity
a process in which the young develop within the female and are born in a nonembryonic state
zona pellucida
the protective layer around the mammalian egg
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