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asexual reproduction
a mechanism that produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
the structure formed when cells in the mammalian blastula separate into an inner and outer layer
a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of an organism leading to a separation from the original animal into two individuals
bulbourethral gland
the paired glands in the human male that produce a secretion that cleanses the urethra prior to ejaculation
a sensory and erectile structure in female mammals, homologous to the male penis, stimulated during sexual arousal
corpus luteum
the endocrine tissue that develops from an ovarian follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy
a reproductive hormone, usually present in animals of any sex, which in females assists in endometrial regrowth, ovulation, and calcium absorption
external fertilization
the fertilization of eggs by sperm outside an animal’s body, often during spawning
(also, binary fission) a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two separate organisms or two parts that regenerate the missing portions of the body
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
a reproductive hormone that causes sperm production in males and follicle development in females
the breaking of an organism into parts and the growth of a separate individual from each part
the process in which the blastula folds over itself to form the three germ layers
the development before birth of a viviparous animal
gestation period
the length of time of development, from conception to birth, of the young of a viviparous animal
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
a hormone from the hypothalamus that causes the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary
the state of having both male and female reproductive structures within the same individual
human beta chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG)
a hormone produced by the chorion of the zygote that helps to maintain the corpus luteum and elevated levels of progesterone
a hormone made by Sertoli cells, provides negative feedback to hypothalamus in control of FSH and GnRH release
inner cell mass
the inner layer of cells in the blastocyst, which becomes the embryo
internal fertilization
the fertilization of eggs by sperm inside the body of the female
interstitial cell of Leydig
a cell type found next to the seminiferous tubules that makes testosterone
labia majora
the large folds of tissue covering inguinal area
labia minora
the smaller folds of tissue within labia majora
luteinizing hormone (LH)
a reproductive hormone that causes testosterone production in males and ovulation and lactation in females
menstrual cycle
the cycle of the degradation and re-growth of the endometrium
the process of producing haploid eggs
the process of organ formation during development
ovarian cycle
the cycle of preparation of egg for ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum
(also, fallopian tube) the muscular tube connecting uterus with ovary area
a process by which fertilized eggs are laid outside the female’s body and develop there, receiving nourishment from the yolk that is a part of the egg
a process by which fertilized eggs are retained within the female; the embryo obtains its nourishment from the egg’s yolk, and the young are fully developed when they are hatched
the release of an oocyte from a mature follicle in the ovary of a vertebrate
a form of asexual reproduction in which an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized
the male reproductive structure for urine elimination and copulation
the organ that supports the transport of nutrients and waste between the mothers and fetus’ blood in eutherian mammals
a reproductive hormone in usually present in animals of any sex; in human females it assists in endometrial regrowth and inhibition of FSH and LH release
prostate gland
a structure that is a mixture of smooth muscle and glandular material and that contributes to semen
a sac containing testes, exterior to body
a fluid mixture of sperm and supporting materials
seminal vesicle
a secretory accessory gland in male; contributes to semen
seminiferous tubule
the structures within which sperm production occurs in the testes
Sertoli cell
a cell in the walls of the seminiferous tubules that assists developing sperm and secretes inhibin
sex determination
the mechanism by which the sex of individuals in sexually reproducing organisms is initially established
sexual reproduction
a form of reproduction in which cells containing genetic material from two individuals combines to produce genetically unique offspring
the process of producing haploid sperm
a pair of male reproductive organs
a reproductive hormone usually present in animals of any sex, and that assists in sperm production and promoting secondary sexual characteristics
the outer layer of cells in the blastocyst, which gives rise to the embryo’s contribution to the placenta
a female reproductive structure in which an embryo develops
a muscular tube for the passage of menstrual flow, copulation, and birth of offspring
a process in which the young develop within the female and are born in a nonembryonic state
zona pellucida
the protective layer around the mammalian egg
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